Re: the injured Jeff
We do use articles before people to show that they are in a particular state/frame of mind.
It was an elated Mark who told us Elena had agreed to be his wife.
I was relieved that it was a jovial Mary who came down to breakfast, not the sulky Mary who went to bed the night before.
I can see it working with the "an injured Jeff" -- I talked with an injured Jeff, who still didn't understand why Toni had left him.
But none of your an/the sentences seemed to work well. And the one without the article doesn't work at all.
I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.