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    #1

    Having or to have

    Only in the most extraordinary circumstances is the case that a new pavement is caused to fail by the application of a single wheel load of whatever magnitude. The general experience is that repeated applications of loads result in the repeated development of stress tending to cause deterioration, and that the ability o withstand strain progressively diminishes with increasing number of load applications. If failure occur in this way, a rational design approach must be based upon a study of responses of the pavement to repeated cyclical loading, on the nature of that loading, and on the number of load application which can take place before the pavement fails. This induces the notion of a pavement ............. a predetermined and finite life.
    1. having2. had3. to have4. having gad

    I have no idea about the structure. The answer key says it is No.1. I don't get the reason.

  1. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Having or to have

    Quote Originally Posted by Freeguy View Post
    Only in the most extraordinary circumstances is the case that a new pavement is caused to fail by the application of a single wheel load of whatever magnitude. The general experience is that repeated applications of loads result in the repeated development of stress tending to cause deterioration, and that the ability o withstand strain progressively diminishes with increasing number of load applications. If failure occur in this way, a rational design approach must be based upon a study of responses of the pavement to repeated cyclical loading, on the nature of that loading, and on the number of load application which can take place before the pavement fails. This induces the notion of a pavement ............. a predetermined and finite life.
    1. having2. had3. to have4. having gad

    I have no idea about the structure. The answer key says it is No.1. I don't get the reason.
    Yes, #1 is correct. "Having" creates a participial phrase that is a modifier of "pavement".

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    #3

    Re: Having or to have

    Q1: We use infinitive after the verb "induce". ( Induce to do sth ). So what's wrong with using induces "to have" (No.3 ) ?

    Q2: Does this HAVING serve the same participle as in relative clause? I mean is "having" synonymous with " that is having" here?

  2. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #4

    Re: Having or to have

    Quote Originally Posted by Freeguy View Post
    Q1: We use infinitive after the verb "induce". ( Induce to do sth ). So what's wrong with using induces "to have" (No.3 ) ?

    Q2: Does this HAVING serve the same participle as in relative clause? I mean is "having" synonymous with " that is having" here?
    An infinitive does not work there. The participle replaces "that has", not "that is having".

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    #5

    Re: Having or to have

    THAT refers to what? Would you please give me an another example similar to this structure? ( that has or having )

  3. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: Having or to have

    Quote Originally Posted by Freeguy View Post
    THAT refers to what? Would you please give me an another example similar to this structure? ( that has or having )
    In the second sentence below, "that" refers to "pavement".

    This induces the notion of a pavement having a predetermined and finite life.
    This induces the notion of a pavement that has a predetermined and finite life.

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