In fact, the question, according to your examples would be:
3. * "He has got a car./ How long has he had got a car?" This is obviously wrong. You need to form the question according to the meaning, not based on this idiomatic form with 'got'.
Note also that you can't use this construction with the present perfect:
4. * "I've received my degree./"How long have you [had] received your degree?" Wrong!
5. * "He has arrived./ "How long has he [had] arrived?" Wrong.