1. I don't have time.
2. I have no time.
In #1, the "not" negates the verb "have": so the sentence expresses "not having something".
In #2, the "no" negates the noun "time": so the sentence expresses "having nothing of something".
On the whole, the second structure (negative + noun) has a more emphatic effect than the first structure (negative + verb).
3. You have no hope of winning.
4. You have no chance of going out with that girl.
5. I have no intention of giving up.
6. There's no way I'll let him drive my motorbike.
All these sentences express a strong negative.