I've seen various interpretations of this phrase, which is a quote from the Book of Proverbs in the Old Testament.
To my mind, the two most likely are:
1. If you cause discord around you, you will bring a whirlwind of troubles on yourself.
2. If you cause discord around you, you will gain nothing of any value.
The imagery can be resolved as follows:
a) troubleth = cause any kind of disturbance or discord
b) his own house = either literally "his own home", "his own family", or "his own surroundings".
c) inherit = receive in consequence
d) the wind = either "troubles" (cf. "whirlwind") or "things of no value".
It's similar in some respects to the Biblical sentiment "you reap what you sow".