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Thread: conjunction

  1. #1
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    Default conjunction

    She had to have three plastic surgeries ---- she had a beautiful face.

    A) until
    B) by the time
    C) when
    D) before
    E) after

    Which one is correct? I think D is OK, but what about B? How can we distinguish between "until", "before" and "by the time", and especially "before" and "by the time"

  2. #2
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    Default Re: conjunction

    She had to have three plastic surgeries______she had a beautiful face.

    A) until
    B) by the time
    C) when
    D) before
    E) after

    Before she had (i.e., could have) a beautiful face, she had to have three surgeries.

    by the time ...
    You need to finish your homework by the time I get home. <up until the time I get home>

    She had to have three plastic surgeries up until the time she had a beautiful face.

    She had to have three plastic surgeries by the time she was 20. Otherwise, her insurance company wouldn't pay the bills.

  3. #3
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    Default Re: conjunction

    thank you, Casiopea.

    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea
    She had to have three plastic surgeries by the time she was 20. Otherwise, her insurance company wouldn't pay the bills.
    She had to have three surgeries by the time she had a beautiful face. Otherwise, she would hesitate to go out.

    Why can the subjects being the same be a reason? and what about this sentence:

    ''By the time she got down here on Nov. 12, she had to sit straight up at night to breathe. Obviously she was getting worse very rapidly.''

    http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache...&ct=clnk&cd=97
    Last edited by curious; 28-May-2006 at 09:27.

  4. #4
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    Default Re: conjunction

    Curious, I agree. This doesn't make sense:

    EX: ?She had to have three surgeries by the time she had a beautiful face. Otherwise, she would hesitate to go out.

    Quote Originally Posted by curious
    Why can the subjects being the same be a reason?
    Sorry. Could you rephrase that question? I'm having trouble understanding it.

    Quote Originally Posted by curious
    ... and what about this sentence:

    ''By the time she got down here on Nov. 12, she had to sit straight up at night to breathe. Obviously she was getting worse very rapidly.''
    It's fine.

  5. #5
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    Default Re: conjunction

    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea
    Sorry. Could you rephrase that question? I'm having trouble understanding it.
    I shouldn't have taken that much for granted, I suppose. I meant both of the sentences have the same subject, ie "she", but the NYtimes example shows that is not what causes the problem. It is related to semantics, I think.

  6. #6
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    Default Re: conjunction

    a) I watched TV by the time she arrived.

    b) I watched TV until she arrived.

    c) I watched TV before she arrived.

    d) I watched TV when she arrived.

    1- Are "a" and "d" interchangeable? If not, what is the difference? Can we say "by the time = when" ?

    2- "b" means "I continued to watch TV until she arrived." Right? What about "c"? It does not imply "continuity" as in b, does it? Can "c" be paraphrased as "I wasn't watching TV when she arrived" or "I stopped watching TV before she arrived"?
    3- "d" means "I watced Tv after she arrived". Right? Thanks.

    My understanding: "with until the action in the main clause happens repeatedly, with by the time only "once", with before once or more but not repeately unlike until. Right? If yes, what is the fifference between "by the time" and "before"? I think that's enough.
    Last edited by curious; 28-May-2006 at 15:35.

  7. #7
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    Default Re: conjunction

    The first example, a), doesn't work, but b) and c) do; d) is marginal sans additional context.

    a) I watched TV by the time she arrived.
    => I finished watching TV by the time she arrived.
    Note, one event ends with the start of another.

    b) I watched TV until she arrived.
    Note, your watching and her arrival are connected. You stopped watching TV when she arrived.

    c) I watched TV before she arrived.
    Note, two events in time; one happens before the other.

    d) I watched TV when she arrived. <marginal>
    Note, When she arrived, I switched on the TV and started to watch it.

  8. #8
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    Default Re: conjunction

    thanks Casiopea

  9. #9
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    Default Re: conjunction

    You're welcome.

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