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  1. #1
    dihen is offline Member
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    Default participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Are participial phrases adverbs or adjectives? Textbooks say that they are adjectives, but I think that restrictive participial phrases are adjectives and that non-restrictive participial phrases are usually adverbials.
    `
    [examples]
    `
    restrictive participial phrases that are adjectives:
    (Can't they usually be changed to a relative clause without a difference in meaning?)
    `
    "Music written especially for a play is called incidental music."
    ("Music that/which is written especially for...")
    `
    "The fire truck carrying the latest equipment was on display."
    ("The fire truck that/which was carrying the...")
    `
    non-restrictive participial phrases that are adverbials:
    `
    "Grunting and straining, Jean Valijean lifted the huge wagon off the peasant who had been pinned beneath it."
    ("While?/In? grunting and straining, Jean Valijean lifted the..."; similar meaning but sounds awkward)
    `
    "Todd, having finished the artwork on the globe for mission prayer band, decided to show it to Paster Donnell."
    ("Todd, who had finished the..."; different meaning)
    `
    "Having finished the artwork on the globe for mission prayer band, Todd decided to show it to Paster Donnell."
    ("After having finished the...", similar meaning but sounds awkward?)
    Last edited by dihen; 15-Jul-2006 at 18:32.

  2. #2
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    How about this for a rewrite that doesn't change the meaning:
    Jean Valijean, who was grunting and straining, lifted...

  3. #3
    dihen is offline Member
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Quote Originally Posted by tdol
    How about this for a rewrite that doesn't change the meaning:
    Jean Valijean, who was grunting and straining, lifted...
    But that can no longer be analyzed as an adverbial.
    `
    And is it true that the preposition "during" developed from the verb "dure", which is no longer used?, and that seems to mean that certain participial phrases are more similar to adverbials, and I think that in certain languages, that kind of participial phrases is even marked with adverbials markings. And consider adverbs, such as "surprisingly", "unknowingly", and "supposedly". And "compared to" does function like an adverb. And it is very likely that some linguists do consider certain participial phrases to be adverbials.
    Last edited by dihen; 16-Jul-2006 at 13:49.

  4. #4
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    I don't see it as adverbial which explains my analysis.

    I believe that 'during' does come from the verb 'durer', from Franch.

  5. #5
    dihen is offline Member
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Jean Valijean, who was grunting and straining, lifted...
    In fact, it's even tempting to me to write "Grunting(*ly) and straining(*ly), Jean Valijean lifted...".
    ----------
    `
    This one is very similar to an adverbial.
    `
    "Using a key, he opened the door."
    "By using a key, he opened the door." (almost identical meaning)
    `
    To me non-restrictive participial phrases are usually a gerund used as an adverbial that omits or cannot express the preposition before the gerund.
    `
    the structure that I think it is:
    `
    [PP [NP Grunting and straining]], Jean Valijean lifted...
    Last edited by dihen; 17-Jul-2006 at 11:32.

  6. #6
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Quote Originally Posted by dihen
    In fact, it's even tempting to me to write "Grunting(*ly) and straining(*ly), Jean Valijean lifted...".
    This would an interesting and creative use, so I'll happily go with it.

  7. #7
    dihen is offline Member
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Quote Originally Posted by dihen View Post
    This one is very similar to an adverbial.
    `
    "Using a key, he opened the door."
    "By using a key, he opened the door." (almost identical meaning)
    `
    To me non-restrictive participial phrases are usually a gerund used as an adverbial that omits or cannot express the preposition before the gerund.
    Or maybe it's because of their similarity to adverbials that I misintepreted them as adverbials.

  8. #8
    dihen is offline Member
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Quote Originally Posted by dihen View Post
    Or maybe it's because of their similarity to adverbials that I misintepreted them as adverbials.
    And I really do interpret them as adverbials because while I would accept sentences like these below, you would probably be very unlikely to accept them.
    `
    "He has, looking out the window, seen two strangers at the door."
    "Jean Valijean has, grunting and straining, lifted the..."

  9. #9
    dihen is offline Member
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    Quote Originally Posted by Tdol View Post
    I don't see it as adverbial which explains my analysis.
    "Jean Valijean, who was grunting and straining, lifted..." is of couse completely not simliar to the structure of "In the state of grunting and straining, Jean Valijean lifted...", but I strongly think that "Grunting and straining, Jean Valijean lifted..." is.
    Last edited by dihen; 26-Sep-2006 at 17:03.

  10. #10
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    MikeNewYork is offline VIP Member
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    Default Re: participial phrases -- adverbs or adjectives?

    For me, "grunting and straining" describes the subject. That would make it adjectival.

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