Yes, "notes of/from the lecture" is sometimes used. I'm cautious about formulating any kind of rule; but to judge by the googles, it seems to be used when the speaker wants to refer to notes in general, rather than any particular person's notes:
1. The professor doesn't want any notes of the lecture to appear in the public domain.
If you're referring to a particular set of notes, however, it seems that "lecture notes" is more usual:
2. Damn. I've lost my lecture notes from last Friday.
Other members may be able to find a better way of distinguishing between the two phrases, though!
All the best,