OK, Thank you very much for your patience with me :)
I think I don't have any other question.... Not yet!
Hi, Mike and Lenka,
This classification is absolutely new to me. As if it were from another planet. How, for instance, can a gerund be a noun? They often have the same functions, but they differ greatly. The gerund has no plural, no article… Well, in short I am used to the traditional (conventional, classical) grammar, where numerals do exist.
It seems to me there’s some confusion here of parts of speech with parts of a sentence. If both a numeral and a gerund can have the function of a subject or an object like nouns, it doesn’t turn them into nouns.
A gerund is a verbal, not a verb. It is used as a noun so it would be classified as such. Other verbals can be adjectives, adverbs, or nouns. "Verbal" or "gerund" is a classification, but it is not a part of speech.
Again, the system I follow does not have "numeral" as a part of speech. Numerals have varying functions in sentences, so I don't see how "numeral" could be a functional classification. But others may see it differently.
I've seen 'numeral' used as a subset of determiners.
Hi , Lenka,
Sorry, those are not gerunds; they are verbal nouns- precisely their ability to take plural differs them from the gerund. You can't say Thank you for beings patient even if it happened several times.
When "painting" is a gerund noun, it refers to an action, an activity.
Painting is my favorite activity. (an activity, gerund, noun)
Please look at my painting. (an object, noun)
Aha!!! You see, I can learn so many new things here!
Thank you for your explanations.
What about word "if"? Is is an adverb?