I prefer the gerund in #2, but I would accept the infinitive.
If you use "helping" in the first, you need to follow it with "to".No.2
I get confused by 'be+ doing' and 'be+to do'. Please read the following sentences:
a. Part of my job as the President's secretary is to help organize conferences and keep him informed.
b. I told him a couple of rumors that I'd heard and his response was to roar with laughter and later tell other friends.
My question is: Can I replace the underlined parts with 'helping' and 'roaring'?
I would not use the ferund in #2. The reason is that it will cause the reader to stumble. It can easily be read as "his response was roaring with laughter" as if his response had that quality.
I would only use the gerund there. In many cases, there is a subtle difference between these two verbals. The gerund often refers to a concrete, actual activity and the infinitive often refers to a theoretical action not yet performed. The context of this sentence makes it clear that the watering was actually done.No. 3
_______ the lawn turned out to be a waste of effort as it rained immediately afterwards.
a. Watering b. To water
The key is 'a'. But my grammar book states that when it refers to an action in general 'verb-ing' should be used as the subject of a sentence. When it refers to a particular action 'to do' should be used as the subject of a sentence. My question is: Is 'b' the correct answer?
Looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you in advance.