The pink "would" is different. It is the past tense of "will" with a sense of being willing.
Present tense: I am talking to the President and he will not be specific.
I am talking to the President and he refuses to be specific.
Past tense: I talked to the President and he would not be specific.
I talked to the President and he refused to be specific.
2) The "they'd be" is the same hypothetical use of would as above.
When the tense shifts to "he'll be", it is no longer hypothetical. In this case it is real -- he will be held accountable for his actions.
3) "Held to account" means "held accountable", "held responsible".