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  1. #1
    Lenka is offline Senior Member
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    close - pronunciation

    I've just realized that word "close" can be read both /kləuz/ (AmE: /klouz/) and /kləus/ - according to its meaning.

    How is it possible, that one word can be read in two different ways?

    Are there some other words whose pronunciation depends on the meaning of the word?

  2. #2
    mykwyner is offline Key Member
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    Re: close - pronunciation

    The most common is read, pronounced reed which is the present tense and read pronounced red that is the past tense.

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    Exclamation Re: close - pronunciation

    Quote Originally Posted by Lenka View Post
    I've just realized that word "close" can be read both /kləuz/ (AmE: /klouz/) and /kləus/ - according to its meaning.

    How is it possible, that one word can be read in two different ways?

    Are there some other words whose pronunciation depends on the meaning of the word?
    Homonym, Homograph, Homophone & Heteronym are the definition that you'd be interested in knowing as a part of your question.

    >> Homonym is a word that has the same pronunciation and spelling as another word, but a different meaning.

    E.g.The word stalk, meaning either part of a plant or to follow (someone) around.

    >> Homograph is a word that has the same spelling as another word, but a different meaning.

    E.g. The spelling to "cleave" may denote to adhere to or to divide or split.

    >> Homophone is a word that has the same pronunciation as another word, but whose meaning and/or spelling are different.

    E.g. to, too, and two AND there, their & they're.

    >> Heteronym, which is similar to a homonym, words that are (typically) spelt alike but differ in pronunciation and meaning (sometimes called heterophones). However, it is a homograph, and considered a homonym to some extent.

  4. #4
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    MikeNewYork is offline VIP Member
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    Re: close - pronunciation

    Quote Originally Posted by j4mes_bond25 View Post
    Homonym, Homograph, Homophone & Heteronym are the definition that you'd be interested in knowing as a part of your question.

    >> Homonym is a word that has the same pronunciation and spelling as another word, but a different meaning.

    E.g.The word stalk, meaning either part of a plant or to follow (someone) around.

    >> Homograph is a word that has the same spelling as another word, but a different meaning.

    E.g. The spelling to "cleave" may denote to adhere to or to divide or split.

    >> Homophone is a word that has the same pronunciation as another word, but whose meaning and/or spelling are different.

    E.g. to, too, and two AND there, their & they're.

    >> Heteronym, which is similar to a homonym, words that are (typically) spelt alike but differ in pronunciation and meaning (sometimes called heterophones). However, it is a homograph, and considered a homonym to some extent.
    I agree with you, but you should check the definition of 'homonym" in major dictionaries to find the source of the confusion.

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    Lenka is offline Senior Member
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    Re: close - pronunciation

    Thank you for your responses, but, according to this (Homonym - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), homonyms have the same pronounciation, different meanings.
    (word close has two types of pronunciation; that is why I don't consider it a homonym)

    Maybe it could be considered the heteronym, as James said. However, I don't know what shall I imagine when the word "heteronym" is pronounced. You say it is similar to homonym (to some extent.... to what extent?) and it is a homograph as well... What is it, then?

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    Exclamation Re: close - pronunciation

    Quote Originally Posted by Lenka View Post
    Thank you for your responses, but, according to this (Homonym - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), homonyms have the same pronounciation, different meanings.
    (word close has two types of pronunciation; that is why I don't consider it a homonym)

    Maybe it could be considered the heteronym, as James said. However, I don't know what shall I imagine when the word "heteronym" is pronounced. You say it is similar to homonym (to some extent.... to what extent?) and it is a homograph as well... What is it, then?
    According to Dictionary.com

    >> Homonym = a word the same as another in sound AND spelling but different in meaning, as chase “to pursue” and chase “to ornament metal.” (loosely Homograph)

    >> Homograph = a word of the same written form as another but of different meaning and usually origin, whether pronounced the same way OR not, as bear1 “to carry; support” and bear2 “animal” or lead1 “to conduct” and lead2 “metal.”

    >> Homophone = a word pronounced the same as another but differing in meaning, whether spelled the same way OR not, as heir and air.

    >> Heteronym = a word spelled the same as another but having a different sound AND meaning, as lead (to conduct) and lead (a metal).

    Focus on the "And" & "Or" within the definition. I reckon, where it says "and", it HAS TO HAVE "both" condition but where it says "or", it could be EITHER.

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    Lenka is offline Senior Member
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    Re: close - pronunciation

    Hmm... It's quite difficult and complicated (can be said).

    I'll try to make a few statements using the linguistical expressions you've brought forward. (I am not sure whether I can use "bring forward here, really. If not, correct me, please.)


    1) WEATHER and WETHER and WHETHER are homophones.

    2) CAN is a homophone, a homograph and a homonym
    (can - water can, can - to know, can - to be able to)

    3) Can e.g. word "needle" be considered a homonym? It has only one meaning, but you can use it both as a verb and a noun. I believe these words (there are thousans of them in English, I guess) are not considered homonyms, but I am rather asking, just in case.

    4) Dream (dream about sth. / of sth.) - can this be consireded two different meanings? If it can, how is the phenomenon (the relation between the words) called? Is it a polysemy?

    5) CLOSE is a heteronym (/clous/, /clouz/), homonym + homograph (to close X open, close X near...)


    If I did understand it well, the difference between homonyms and homographs is quite tiny. The only difference is the fact that homographs can be read (pronounced) either in the same or in a different way. Am I right?

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    Exclamation Re: close - pronunciation

    Quote Originally Posted by Lenka View Post
    Hmm... It's quite difficult and complicated (can be said).

    I'll try to make a few statements using the linguistical expressions you've brought forward. (I am not sure whether I can use "bring forward here, really. If not, correct me, please.)

    1) WEATHER and WETHER and WHETHER are homophones.
    That's right. Weather & whether are homophones

    2) CAN is a homophone, a homograph and a homonym
    (can - water can, can - to know, can - to be able to)
    Indeed. CAN is a homophone, a homograph & ALSO a homonym

    3) Can e.g. word "needle" be considered a homonym? It has only one meaning, but you can use it both as a verb and a noun. I believe these words (there are thousans of them in English, I guess) are not considered homonyms, but I am rather asking, just in case.
    Homonym is when the word has "two different" meaning. Hence, "Needle" CANNOT be "homonym" since it has NO "different meaning", as it's ONLY ONE meaning.

    4) Dream (dream about sth. / of sth.) - can this be consireded two different meanings? If it can, how is the phenomenon (the relation between the words) called? Is it a polysemy?
    In this context, I reckon the word "dream" & the word "dream" in the phrase "dream about something of something" reflect the same meaning i.e. "things we see while sleeping". So, it CANNOT be said as "polysemy" since that word means "diversity/difference of meanings", which is NOT the case here.

    5) CLOSE is a heteronym (/clous/, /clouz/), homonym + homograph (to close X open, close X near...)
    Heteronym is a word that spells the same (like "close", whether it's /clous/ OR /clouz/) but having different sound AND meaning. Now, "close" has different sound (depending on whether it's "adjective" or "noun") and the meaning is "different" as well, such as "close" meaning "not far" AND "close" meaning "not open". So, bearing in mind this logic, it fits in ALL the criteria set for being considered as "Heteronym" & hence, I'd be inclined to consider "close" as "heteronym"

    If I did understand it well, the difference between homonyms and homographs is quite tiny. The only difference is the fact that homographs can be read (pronounced) either in the same or in a different way. Am I right?
    You're RIGHT saying that the difference between "homonyms" and "homographs" is negligible.

  9. #9
    Lenka is offline Senior Member
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    Re: close - pronunciation

    Quote Originally Posted by j4mes_bond25 View Post
    Heteronym is a word that spells the same (like "close", whether it's /clous/ OR /clouz/) but having different sound AND meaning. Now, "close" has different sound (depending on whether it's "adjective" or "noun") and the meaning is "different" as well, such as "close" meaning "not far" AND "close" meaning "not open". So, bearing in mind this logic, it fits in ALL the criteria set for being considered as "Heteronym" & hence, I'd be inclined to consider "close" as "heteronym"
    Thank you, James.

    I really didn't know that the difference sound of "close" /clouS-Z/ is dependent on the fact whether the word is or isn't an adjective or a verb. Can "close" be a noun too?

    Well, if the word is a heteronym, does it mean that it can't be a homonym/homograph? Why? Are these two phenomena "expelling" (is it the right word?) each other?

    What about these two?:
    Cambridge Dictionaries Online - Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge Dictionaries Online - Cambridge University Press

    They have different meaning, in my opinion. And they are read the same. However, I am not able to say whether the phenomenon which connects them is a polysemy... It can be said they are a little similar... However, I can't judge it - I am not a native speaker.

    Then, if you really consider it bearing two (or perhaps more) meanings, it is a homonym (homograph), isn't it? Does the previous sentence sound weird? I'm not sure about the expression "consider it bearing"...

    By the way, can you say "The shop is close / closed." ?

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    Exclamation Re: close - pronunciation

    Quote Originally Posted by Lenka View Post
    Thank you, James.

    I really didn't know that the difference sound of "close" /clouS-Z/ is dependent on the fact whether the word is or isn't an adjective or a verb. Can "close" be a noun too?

    Well, if the word is a heteronym, does it mean that it can't be a homonym/homograph? Why? Are these two phenomena "expelling" (is it the right word?) each other?

    What about these two?:
    Cambridge Dictionaries Online - Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge Dictionaries Online - Cambridge University Press

    They have different meaning, in my opinion. And they are read the same. However, I am not able to say whether the phenomenon which connects them is a polysemy... It can be said they are a little similar... However, I can't judge it - I am not a native speaker.

    Then, if you really consider it bearing two (or perhaps more) meanings, it is a homonym (homograph), isn't it? Does the previous sentence sound weird? I'm not sure about the expression "consider it bearing"...

    By the way, can you say "The shop is close / closed." ?
    Strictly speaking, Closeness is a "noun", however, Close "could be" considered as noun when it refers to some "street name" (however, as long as I'm aware, it's usually happens only in British English), such as "Cooper Close", "Barker Close", etc.

    Polysemy would be the right word to describe the phenomenon.

    I'd rather say "The shop is close". Although, you may also say, "The shop had closed".

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