None of those has a definitive answer. Which word is stressed in a given sentence is nearly always strongly dependent upon context and the kind of information the speaker is trying to convey. Let's take your first sentence, "He telephoned the police yesterday" as an example:
He telephoned the police yesterday. Implies the action was taken by this specific individual, as opposed to someone else.
He telephoned the police yesterday. Conveys the sense that the telephone was used, rather than a different medium for communication, such as a personal visit.
He telephoned the police yesterday. Emphasizes that the police were called, rather than another agency, organization or individual.
He telephoned the police yesterday. Stresses the timing of the call to the police; yesterday rather than today, for instance.
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