i need to know something about phrasal verbs which express the beggining, the duration, the completion, the full exhaustion and the qualitative character
EEEK! Gotta love the language to go through this! This is a deep subject. I'm assuming that you're referring to the difficulty in translating a foreign (to me anyway) language to English and the peculiarities of English verbal phrases that causes one to translate the wrong meaning. Actually, it can be kind of funny on tv But this is real life. I'll give you what I know, which is probably less than what you know. More information would be helpful.
A phrasal is a verb (stand, turn, set, call) followed by one or more particles (prepositons or spatial adverbs such as on, no, down, out) where the combination behaves as a syntactic (combined order) and semantic (combined meaning). In other words, putting together some words to form a meaning or idea that is seperate of the literal verb meaning.
Using the ones I mentioned above:
My orange hair makes me stand out in a crowd.
Rocky set up the meeting for ten o'clock.
I hope that the teacher will call on me.
As for the beginning, completion, and exhaustion, that's way over my head.
Completion is often expressed with 'up'- use up/give up, etc.
MacMillan have tried to group verbs by particle in their Phrasal Verb dictionary, which might help the post. I'm not sure about 'qualitative'- maybe things like do up (renovate)?