The term is context cues. Those are cues (indications) you get from context about the meaning of a word or sentence.
Collocations are words that are typically used together. An example of that is waiting for.
A figurative meaning of something is not a literal meaning. It is instead metaphorical.
An idiom and an idiomatic expression are pretty much the same thing. The meaning of an idiom cannot be deduced by the words alone. An idiomatic expression is not meant literally but figuratively.
Many of those terms can be found in the UsingEnglish glossary. It would be best to look them up there and if you need further help ask about them on the forum. (The phrase look them up is an example of a collocation. (It is also a phrasal verb.))