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  1. #1
    Ju is offline Senior Member
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    Red face "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    1) By purely reading the word, how could I tell it has plural or not?

    2) By purely reading the word, how could I tell it should add 'er' and 'est'
    behind, or put 'more' and 'the most' in front?


    Thanks

  2. #2
    curmudgeon's Avatar
    curmudgeon is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    What's the word?

  3. #3
    Ju is offline Senior Member
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    Red face Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    Quote Originally Posted by curmudgeon View Post
    What's the word?
    __________________________________________________ _____________

    Hi Curmudgeon,

    Someone told me that we can tell whether the adjective should add er / est or more / the most in front by the consonant or vowel. Is it right? Kindly explain with examples. / ju

  4. #4
    curmudgeon's Avatar
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    Default Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    I'll leave this to the 'masters'

  5. #5
    Teia is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    Quote Originally Posted by Ju View Post
    1) By purely reading the word, how could I tell it has plural or not?

    2) By purely reading the word, how could I tell it should add 'er' and 'est'
    behind, or put 'more' and 'the most' in front?


    Thanks
    Hi

    1. One cannot state if a noun is singular or plural without placing it in a context.
    e.g. The sheep is grazing in the field [singular]
    The sheep are grazing in the field. [plural]
    The noun "sheep"- among many others- is considered to have a "zero plural" from this point of view.

    "Plurals are formed by adding -s, except the following cases:
     When a word ends in -ch, -s, -sh, -ss or -x the plural is formed by adding -es
     eg.: benches, gases, dishes, crosses, taxes
     When a word ends in -y preceded by a consonant the plural form is -ies
     eg.: parties, bodies, policies
     When a word ends in -y preceded by a vowel the plural is formed by adding -s
     eg.: trays, joys, keys
     When a word ends in -o the more common plural ending is -oes
     eg.: tomatoes, potatoes, zeroes, heroes
     In less familiar words or when the final -o preceded by a vowel the plural ending is -os
     eg.: avocados, armadillos, studios, cameos
     When a word ends in -f the plural is formed either by adding -s
     eg.: beliefs, cuffs, whiffs
     or by changing the -f to -v and adding -es, eg.: wives, thieves, loves.
     Some words may take both forms, eg.: scarf, wharf
    In the cases where both endings can be used, the -ves ending is usually the more formal one. The -s ending is more "casual" and is a bit more of a "slang" form.

     When a word ends in -ex or -ix the more formal plural ending is -ices. In more general contexts -es is used
     eg.: appendices, appendixes, indices, indexes
     When a word form Latin ends in -is the plural form is -es
     eg.: egcrises, analyses
     When a word form Latin ends in -us the plural form is -i
     eg.: succubi, nuclei, syllabi, radii
    exception: viruses
     With compound words (like court-martial) it is usually the most important part which is pluralized
     eg.: courts-martial, lord-justices, mothers-in-law
     In certain cases the plural form of a word is the same as the singular
     eg.: deer, sheep, grouse and in some words both forms end in -s
     eg.: measles, corps, mews
     There are two main types of plural which take either singular of plural verbs:
     words like media and data. These are in common use as singular nouns although, strictly, this is incorrect
     words ending in -ics. Generally, these are treated as plural when the word relates to an individual person or thing
     eg.: his mathematics are poor, the hall's acoustics are good
    and as singular when it is regarded more strictly as a science
     eg.: mathematics is an important subject."

    PLURALS OF ENGLISH NOUNS

    Plural - English Grammar

    Spelling: Noun Plurals

    This is a very large topic and it takes too much time to discuss it on the forum

    2. English adjectives made up of one syllable add -er [comparative] and -est [superlative].

    hot - hottest - the hottest
    thin- thinner - the thinnest
    busy - busier - the busiest
    There are some exceptions as well :

    clever [two syllables] - cleverer - the cleverest
    narrow - narrower - the narrowest

    The morphemes "more" and " most" are added to the adjectives made up of two or more syllables:
    difficult- more difficult - the most difficult
    beautiful -more beautiful - the most beautiful

    This is also a very large topic which requires a deeper study.

    Regards

  6. #6
    curmudgeon's Avatar
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    Default Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    Excellent reply teia.

  7. #7
    Teia is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    Quote Originally Posted by curmudgeon View Post
    Excellent reply teia.

    Hi Curmudgeon

    Thank you very much. I am aware of the fact that my examples cannot be of too much help [especially for a beginner] because such large topics as English noun and adjective should be discussed step by step due to the complexity they involve: spelling, pronounciation,form, etc.

    Best wishes

  8. #8
    curmudgeon's Avatar
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    Default Re: "plural or not", "er" & "est" or "more" & "the most"

    Ye I agree it is a vast area and needs to be taken step by step.

    I do enjoy your contributions though, as they are as comprehensive as any I have seen on here.

    Best wishes

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