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    #1

    Cool close vs closely

    I am struggling with the difference between close and closely as adverbs. How can I differentiate between their meanings or find the correct usage. Ex "He held her close" vs "He held her closely." Is it a copular verb thing "they live close to the school" Please help.

  1. Casiopea's Avatar

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    #2

    Re: close vs closely

    Welcome, Kanadian.

    On its own like that, close is short for close to. The to-part is often omitted. Like this:

    Ellipsis: He held her close (to his heart).

    Otherwise, closely modifies the verb:

    He held her closely.

    All the best.


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    #3

    Re: close vs closely

    Hi,
    Too humble to contradict Her Highness Cas, but still... He held her closely looks odd to me.
    A.S. Hornby:
    close -adv in a close manner; near together; tightly.

    To me, closely looks natural in its abstract meaning:
    follow/consider/listen/resemble closely

  2. Casiopea's Avatar

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    #4

    Re: close vs closely

    Quote Originally Posted by Humble View Post
    Hi,
    Too humble to contradict Her Highness Cas,...
    Discussion is important.


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    #5

    Re: close vs closely

    Quote Originally Posted by Kanadian View Post
    I am struggling with the difference between close and closely as adverbs. How can I differentiate between their meanings or find the correct usage. Ex "He held her close" vs "He held her closely." Is it a copular verb thing "they live close to the school" Please help.
    Two forms used in the same way:
    cheap/cheaply, clean/cleanly, clear/clearly, close/closely, fair/fairly, fine/finely, firm/firmly, first/firstly, loud/loudly, quick/quickly, quiet/quietly, slow/slowly, thin/thinly.

    Two forms used in different ways:
    deep/deeply, direct/directly, easy/easily, flat/flatly, free/freely, full/fully, hard/hardly, high/highly, just/justly, last/lastly, late/lately, near/nearly, pretty/prettily, real/really, rough/roughly, sharp/sharply, short/shortly, strong/strongly, sure/surely, wide/widely.

    I held her close -- close is an adjectival object complement
    or
    I held her closely -- SVOA
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails e4.gif  


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    #6

    Re: close vs closely

    Sorry, what is SVOA?

  3. BobK's Avatar
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    #7

    Re: close vs closely

    I'd hazard a guess at Subject-Verb-Object-Adverb. There must be a web-site somewhere [probably posted already, before I hit the Submit button] that lists the other possible syntaxes for an English sentence (seven in all, I think).

    b

  4. Casiopea's Avatar

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    #8

    Re: close vs closely

    Here are just a sample of examples from on-line literature sites:

    Ex: Again he held her closely in his arms. "And I've sure got you, Dede."
    Ex: He held her closely and rocked her from side to side in his arms,....
    Ex: His arm held her closely, fear vanished,....
    Ex: He lifted her weak, trembling body to a sitting position and held her closely, tightly, not really as lovers, but soothingly as if to welcome calm back to....
    Ex: Herbert Greyson, who, pale with concentrated rage, held her closely and...

    All the best.


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    #9

    Re: close vs closely

    Tnx, Cas,
    That's convincing.

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    #10

    Re: close vs closely

    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea View Post
    Here are just a sample of examples from on-line literature sites:
    Ex: Again he held her closely in his arms. "And I've sure got you, Dede."
    Ex: He held her closely and rocked her from side to side in his arms,....
    Ex: His arm held her closely, fear vanished,....
    Ex: He lifted her weak, trembling body to a sitting position and held her closely, tightly, not really as lovers, but soothingly as if to welcome calm back to....
    Ex: Herbert Greyson, who, pale with concentrated rage, held her closely and...
    All the best.

    It is interesting Casi to see all the examples you quoted are:
    "He held her" and NOT "she held him"

    But maybe I was made a bit too sensitive to sexist language because of "Gender Studies" a branch of linguistics I am interested in.
    Last edited by Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim; 26-Feb-2007 at 11:14.

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