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  1. #1
    fritch20 Guest

    Default How do I explain differences between sentences and words

    1) An advanced student asks you to explain the difference between the following pairs of sentences. What would your explanation be?

    a) They always play on our front lawn
    ∑ Use of a Pronoun
    Theyíre always playing on our front lawn.
    ∑ Present Plural Phrase

    b) She didnít need to buy a ticket after all.
    ∑ She had a ticket already
    She neednít have bought a ticket after all
    ∑ Combines didnít and need

    c) The senior members of staff who were over 60 took early retirement.
    ∑ Combines two clauses
    The senior members of staff, who were over 60, took early retirement
    ∑ Combines 3 clauses

    2) You want to teach an Elementary level class how to ask for and give simple directions, so that students can find their way around Bath

    a) Which words and phrases would you teach in your 1st lesson?
    ∑ North, South, West, East, Block, Street
    ∑ The college is north of Main St.
    ∑ City Hall is two blocks south of the college.

    b) How would you go about it?
    ∑ Bring in a map to demonstrate
    c) What difficulties would you anticipate?
    ∑ Students unfamiliar with directions, and word phrases
    3) What pronunciation difficulties can you identify in the following sets of words or sentences? How would you draw studentsí attention to the correct pronunciations?

    a) worked, climbed, recorded
    ∑ Word + ed; implies past tense

    b) nation, national, nationality
    ∑ Different meanings; Go over definitions

    c) You donít believe that, do you? (Sounding surprised)
    ∑ Question in a statement

    You really believe that, donít you? (expecting confirmation)
    ∑ Question asking for a response

    4) What difficulties (if any) might the underlined vocabulary items present for learners? How would you help learners to understand the meaning of each item?

    a) Theyíve bought a bungalow near the seaside.
    ∑ Unable to understand the word; Show that bungalow is the same as house, shack, cottage.

    b) Heís always been a bit skinny
    ∑ Unable to understand the word; Skinny is the same as thin, and opposite of fat

    c) Sheís usually sympathetic to people
    ∑ Unable to understand the word; Sympathetic implies to listen, understand what others are feeling.

    d) Iíve never been able to get on with people I work with.
    ∑ To get on with; friendly, converse with, hang out.

  2. #2
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    I would have thought that the difference was the use of the present simple to denote the habit and the present progressive to show disapprovalof the habit in the first example:
    a) They always play on our front lawn

    b) Theyíre always playing on our front lawn.


  3. #3
    MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    Default Re: How do I explain differences between sentences and words

    Quote Originally Posted by fritch20
    1) An advanced student asks you to explain the difference between the following pairs of sentences. What would your explanation be?

    a) They always play on our front lawn
    ∑ Use of a Pronoun
    Theyíre always playing on our front lawn.
    ∑ Present Plural Phrase
    The first is present tense used for habitual action (The adverb always adds clarity). The second is the present progressive form/tense used for habitual action. (The adverb always is necessary for the habit meaning.)

    b) She didnít need to buy a ticket after all.
    ∑ She had a ticket already
    She neednít have bought a ticket after all
    ∑ Combines didnít and need
    Yes, these two demonstrate the uses of "didn't need" (did not need)and "needn't" (need not).

    c) The senior members of staff who were over 60 took early retirement.
    ∑ Combines two clauses
    The senior members of staff, who were over 60, took early retirement
    ∑ Combines 3 clauses
    There are still only two clauses in the second.

    In the first, the relative clause "who were over sixty" is a restrictive/defining relative clause. It is necessary for the sentence's meaning and is not offset with commas. This means that "only" senior members of the staff over 60 took early retirement. There were other senior members of the staff who were under 60.

    In the second, the relative clause "who were over sixty" is a non-restrictive/non-defining relative clause. It is not necessary for the sentence's meaning and is offset with commas. This means that "all" of the senior members of the staff were over 60 and they "all" took early retirement. There were no senior members of the staff who were under 60.

    2) You want to teach an Elementary level class how to ask for and give simple directions, so that students can find their way around Bath

    a) Which words and phrases would you teach in your 1st lesson?
    ∑ North, South, West, East, Block, Street
    ∑ The college is north of Main St.
    ∑ City Hall is two blocks south of the college.

    b) How would you go about it?
    ∑ Bring in a map to demonstrate
    c) What difficulties would you anticipate?
    ∑ Students unfamiliar with directions, and word phrases
    Certainly, some vocabulary would need to be taught. A map could be a great aid. In addition to words for directions, some verbs would have to be introduced: go, walk, turn, continue, etc.

    3) What pronunciation difficulties can you identify in the following sets of words or sentences? How would you draw studentsí attention to the correct pronunciations?

    a) worked, climbed, recorded
    ∑ Word + ed; implies past tense

    b) nation, national, nationality
    ∑ Different meanings; Go over definitions

    c) You donít believe that, do you? (Sounding surprised)
    ∑ Question in a statement

    You really believe that, donít you? (expecting confirmation)
    ∑ Question asking for a response
    a) three different pronunciations of verbs ending in -ed.

    work + t sound
    climb + d sound
    record + ed sound (additional syllable)

    b) change of vowel sound from long to short

    c) rising voice inflection vs. falling voice inflection in tag questions.



    4) What difficulties (if any) might the underlined vocabulary items present for learners? How would you help learners to understand the meaning of each item?

    a) Theyíve bought a bungalow near the seaside.
    ∑ Unable to understand the word; Show that bungalow is the same as house, shack, cottage.

    b) Heís always been a bit skinny
    ∑ Unable to understand the word; Skinny is the same as thin, and opposite of fat

    c) Sheís usually sympathetic to people
    ∑ Unable to understand the word; Sympathetic implies to listen, understand what others are feeling.

    d) Iíve never been able to get on with people I work with.
    ∑ To get on with; friendly, converse with, hang out.
    Time to introduce the dictionary. :wink:

  4. #4
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    Yo! Mike, cool work.

  5. #5
    MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by tdol
    Yo! Mike, cool work.
    Thanks! 8)

  6. #6
    fritch20 Guest

    Default Thanks for the help

    Thanks Mike

  7. #7
    MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    Default Re: Thanks for the help

    Quote Originally Posted by fritch20
    Thanks Mike
    You're welcome. Was that what you wanted? :wink:

  8. #8
    fritch20 Guest

    Default Re: Thanks for the help

    Yeah it was just the help I needed Thanks again

  9. #9
    Red5 is offline Webmaster, UsingEnglish.com
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    Was this a homework assignment by any chance?
    Red5
    Webmaster, UsingEnglish.com

  10. #10
    MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    Default Re: Thanks for the help

    Quote Originally Posted by fritch20
    Yeah it was just the help I needed Thanks again
    No problem :wink:

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