# Thread: less , owing to etc.

1. ## less , owing to etc.

Dear teachers,

I have four questions to ask:

No.1
Most economists today agree that if ___________ than 5 percent of the labor force is unemployed, the economy for all practical purposes, is in a state of full employment.

a. less b. no more
The key is 'b'. I think 'b' can mean 'up to five percent'. 'a' means '1-4'. My question is: can I choose 'a'?

No.2
Bob said proudly that he had achieved all his goals, not in spite of his handicap, but _______.
a. owing to b. due to c. on account of d. because of
I think the sentence means: His handicap didn't prevent him from achieving his goals.
The key is 'd'. This is too difficult for me because I can't see the difference here.

No.3

_______ I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing.
a. Unless b. Even if
The key is 'b'. Can I choose 'a' to mean 'If I want to say ' When I have money I would buy such an expensive thing'?

No.4
He is a controversial person, but his science fiction books are ______.
a. admired by both his friends and opponents
b. admired both by his friends and opponents
The key is 'a'. No problem. If I choose 'b' it should be ' admired both by his friends and by his opponents'. Is that right?

Looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you in advance.

Jiang

2. ## Re: less , owing to etc.

Originally Posted by jiang
Dear teachers,

I have four questions to ask:

No.1
Most economists today agree that if ___________ than 5 percent of the labor force is unemployed, the economy for all practical purposes, is in a state of full employment.

a. less b. no more
The key is 'b'. I think 'b' can mean 'up to five percent'. 'a' means '1-4'. My question is: can I choose 'a'? "no more than 5 per cent" = I agree with your suggestion. "Less than 5 per cent" is between zero and 5 per cent. You could certainly use it, and the sentence would be grammatical. NB no comma after "purposes".

No.2
Bob said proudly that he had achieved all his goals, not in spite of his handicap, but _______.
a. owing to b. due to c. on account of d. because of
I think the sentence means: His handicap didn't prevent him from achieving his goals. I agree
The key is 'd'. This is too difficult for me because I can't see the difference here. There is a basic problem in that there has to be something after the options offered - "handicap, but on account of it".

No.3

_______ I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing.
a. Unless b. Even if
The key is 'b'. Can I choose 'a' to mean 'If I want to say ' When I have money I would buy such an expensive thing'? I think "Unless" is synonymous here with "Except when". It indicates less guarantee that you will have the money.

No.4
He is a controversial person, but his science fiction books are ______.
a. admired by both his friends and opponents
b. admired both by his friends and opponents
The key is 'a'. No problem. If I choose 'b' it should be ' admired both by his friends and by his opponents'. Is that right? I agree with you.

Looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you in advance.

Jiang
..

3. ## Re: less , owing to etc.

Dear Anglika,
Thank you very much for your explanation. Now I see.
No.3. I can't choose 'unless'. Is that right?

Looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you in advance.

Jiang
Originally Posted by Anglika
..

4. ## Re: less , owing to etc.

Can I choose 'a' to mean "If I want to say ' When I have money I would buy such an expensive thing' "?

Have I read your suggestion right? If so, then no.

Unless I had the money... >> Except when I had the money...

5. ## Re: less , owing to etc.

Dear Anglika,
You have read my suggestion right.
I am sorry to be slow or I am afraid I am influenced by my mother tongue.
Did you mean 'Except when I had the money' can't be used in subjunctive mood?

Originally Posted by Anglika
Can I choose 'a' to mean "If I want to say ' When I have money I would buy such an expensive thing' "?

Have I read your suggestion right? If so, then no.

Unless I had the money... >> Except when I had the money...

6. ## Re: less , owing to etc.

Originally Posted by jiang

No.2
Bob said proudly that he had achieved all his goals, not in spite of his handicap, but _______.
a. owing to b. due to c. on account of d. because of
I think the sentence means: His handicap didn't prevent him from achieving his goals.
The key is 'd'. This is too difficult for me because I can't see the difference here
No.3

_______ I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing.
a. Unless b. Even if
The key is 'b'. Can I choose 'a' to mean 'If I want to say ' When I have money I would buy such an expensive thing'?
Hi Jiang

My opinion is a bit different for 2 and I'd like to add a comment for 3:
.
No.2
Bob said proudly that he had achieved all his goals, not in spite of his handicap, but because of.
.
I think there are two things you need to consider here: meaning and balance. "Because of" works for both. The meaning is appropriate and the word 'of' is balanced. You could think of the balance aspect this way: "... not this of, but that of". I guess the main reason I would reject "on account of" is that it has more than one meaning, one of which doesn't fit the sentence at all.
.
Normally you would need to add something (e.g. the word it) after "because of". However, I think it can be left out here since the emphasis is on "in spite of" vs "because of".
.
.
No.3
Unless I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing.
.
I see nothing grammatically wrong with this sentence. Naturally, it does not mean the same thing as using "even if" in the sentence. What it does mean is this:
.
"Except for a situation in which I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing."
-OR-
"Only if I had the money would I buy such an expensive thing."
.
(Note the subject/verb inversion in the last sentence. That is typical in sentences beginning with "only if".)

7. ## Re: less , owing to etc.

Dear Philly,
Thank you very much for your explanation. Now I see. No.3 is what I wanted to convey but I think my English is not good enough to express my idea clear.

Have a nice weekend.

Jiang
Originally Posted by Philly
Hi Jiang

My opinion is a bit different for 2 and I'd like to add a comment for 3:
.
No.2
Bob said proudly that he had achieved all his goals, not in spite of his handicap, but because of.
.
I think there are two things you need to consider here: meaning and balance. "Because of" works for both. The meaning is appropriate and the word 'of' is balanced. You could think of the balance aspect this way: "... not this of, but that of". I guess the main reason I would reject "on account of" is that it has more than one meaning, one of which doesn't fit the sentence at all.
.
Normally you would need to add something (e.g. the word it) after "because of". However, I think it can be left out here since the emphasis is on "in spite of" vs "because of".
.
.
No.3
Unless I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing.
.
I see nothing grammatically wrong with this sentence. Naturally, it does not mean the same thing as using "even if" in the sentence. What it does mean is this:
.
"Except for a situation in which I had the money, I wouldn't buy such an expensive thing."
-OR-
"Only if I had the money would I buy such an expensive thing."
.
(Note the subject/verb inversion in the last sentence. That is typical in sentences beginning with "only if".)

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