a. as saying <another way of saying as having said, to have said>
Note, report (vb.), to repeat, as what one has heard. Source
Research has also been made into the way people's behavior changes...
b. made <conducted; advanced>
Ex: "Research has been made into the capability of "networks of workstations", and their performance compared to supercomputers."
The key, however, isn't b. made, it's a. done. The reason, probably, is that the phrase make into, while not a phrasal verb in No.2, could read like one. Phrasal make into, to turn something into something else; to change its form and/or meaning. Ambiguity.
No.3 <I've modified the sentence>
A gesture alone gives the liar away.
=> Hint: What does alone modify that singly cannot? How do alone and only differ semantically in that context?
"Always can't be put at the beginning of a sentence to modify the whole sentence."
All the best.
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