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  1. #1
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    Default Edit my topic, please

    Hi!

    I've written this topic for the Trinity 9 exam I'm taking soon. I know it's quite long (1,076 words), but could you please edit it for me? The level is supposed to be B 2.3 (approximately, like FCE). Thanks in advance!


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    CONCLAVE



    1. Definition
    The conclave is the process by which the Roman Catholic Church elects the Pope (or Bishop of Rome). Thus, the Pope is considered the successor of Saint Peter, head of the Church and of the Vatican City. The word ‘conclave’ comes from the Latin words ‘cum clave’, that stands for ‘with a key’, as they are locked up. During the conclave the electors cannot talk to any people outside the process. Since some centuries, conclaves are held in the Sistine Chapel, inside the Vatican Palace.

    2. History
    In the first centuries, Roman priests and clergies agreed with each other to choose the new Pope and they presented him to Rome, and if they liked him, he was chosen; otherwise, they had to choose a new one. This election way provoked many problems and fights, and those who did not agree chose the Pope they liked. Thus, the antipopes were created, i.e. something like another Pope, who was ‘illegal’ though. This way changed a little in the VI century and it was not until 1139 when only cardinals chose the Pope.

    Conclaves as are known nowadays started in the city of Viterbo, in Italy. That year Clement IV had died and the cardinals did not choose a new Pope; they did not agree. Three years without Pope were too much for the people and therefore, they got angry; so they decided to feed cardinals only with bread and water. Moreover, they demolished the roof of the palace where they were. It seems that the cardinals caught the hint and they chose Gregory X quite quickly. He imposed some strict rules so this did not happen again.

    Since the XV century, conclaves are only held in Rome; except the one in 1800, because Rome was at war and hence, it was held in Venice. No conclaves have been held outside the Sistine Chapel since 1846.

    3. Electors
    Electors have to be cardinals and therefore, members of the Cardinals College (the Pope does not have to be a cardinal).

    The number of members of the Cardinals College has changed a lot during the centuries: in the XIII century there were only 7 members; in 1587 there were 70. In the XX century, specially with John XXIII, the Church tried to vary more the countries and continents the Cardinals were from; though Paul VI restricted the maximum number of cardinals to 120 and imposed a rule which said that the electors had to be under 80.

    In 2003, John Paul II named 31 more cardinals and established the maximum number of electors in 135, but maintaining the rule of being under 80. Nowadays, there are 183 members in the College, from which only 117 can vote.




    4. From the death to the new Pope

    4.1. THE POPE’S DEATH
    When the Pope dies, the Camerlengo (a cardinal) has to confirm his death. In order to do that, the tradition says that he has to hit the Pope’s head with a hammer made of silver. When he confirms it, he kneels down and prays for his soul. Afterwards, another cardinal issues the death certificate, so a doctor is necessary.

    Then, the Pope’s official objects are destroyed, so that no false documents are made. Afterwards, some special cardinals are told the news and the doyen of the College of Cardinals calls all the cardinals in the world and tells them to go to Rome. Finally, the bell in Saint Peter’s Square is rung so that the world knows his death.

    4.2. THE START OF THE CONCLAVE
    After the Pope’s funeral, the conclave starts. It is held in the Sistine Chapel, but the cardinals can also stay in a special building and in the gardens in the Vatican City, but they must not talk to anybody outside the event. In the last conclave, for example, they looked for electronic objects so nobody knew the votings. In the afternoon, they go to the Sistine Chapel, they say the ‘Veni Creator’ prayer so that the Holy Spirit comes to them and they promise they will abide by the rules.

    Then, a cardinal says the expression ‘Extra omnes!’, meaning that nobody not taking part in the conclave must go; except the cardinal himself and a preacher, who meditates with the cardinals. Finally, the cardinals are left on their own and the doors are shut.

    4.3. VOTINGS
    The votings are done by secret votes. Candidates have to reach two thirds of the cardinals’ votings to be named Pope; they are allowed to vote themselves.

    There are two votings every day, one in the morning and another in the afternoon. After that, each cardinal is given a piece of paper to vote his favourite (only one name per cardinal is allowed). Each cardinal goes to the altar and gives his paper. When all the cardinals have given their papers, three cardinals count in loud voice the votes, with another three cardinals looking, so they do not cheat. If the number of votes and the number of cardinals is different, all the papers are burnt and the voting is repeated.

    If nobody reaches the two thirds, the papers are burnt with wet straw and black smoke appears; otherwise, they are burnt with dry straw and the smoke appears white. In the last conclaves, there were many problems with this system, and the Sistine Chapel almost got burnt and the white smoke appeared grey. To solve this problem, Saint Peter’s Square’s bells are rung so that all doubts get cleared.

    The conclave lasts all the time it is necessary. After 33 or 34 votings (depending on if they voted the first day or not) if there is no election, they can change the rules and decide to change the rule to only a half of the cardinals or vote between the two most voted cardinals.

    4.4. ACCEPTANCE
    When somebody is elected, the new Pope has to say whether he would like to be Pope or not. If he accepts, he has to say the name by which he wants to be called. If somebody who is not in the room gets elected, he has to be called as soon as possible and nobody outside the conclave has to know it.

    After that, he is named new Pope and Bishop pf Rome. Then, he gets well-dressed and goes to the balcony to give ‘Urbi et Orbi’ blessing. In some days, a special celebration is held to celebrate his election.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Edit my topic, please

    Hi Trousy, hope this helps:

    1. Definition
    The conclave is the process by which the Roman Catholic Church elects the Pope (or Bishop of Rome). Thus, the Pope is considered the successor of Saint Peter, head of the Church and the Vatican. The word ‘conclave’ comes from the Latin words ‘cum’ and ‘clave’, which translate to ‘with a key’ (as they are locked up). During the conclave the electors cannot talk to any people outside the process. For centuries, conclaves have been held in the Sistine Chapel, within the Vatican Palace.

    2. History
    In the first centuries, Roman priests and clergies agreed with each other to choose the new Pope and they presented him to Rome. If Rome accepted him, he was appointed. Election in this way caused many problems and provoked numerous fights, and those who did not approve of the elected Pope chose their own. Thus, the antipopes were created. This way changed a little in the 6th century but it was not until 1139 that the Pope was chosen only by cardinals.

    Modern conclaves started in the Italian city of Viterbo. In 1139, Clement IV died and the cardinals did not choose a new Pope (they could not agree). But three years without a Pope was too long for the people - and their anger grew. They decided to feed cardinals with only bread and water. Moreover, they demolished the roof of their palace. The cardinals regrouped and promptly chose Gregory X. (He later imposed strict rules so this did not happen again).

    Since the 15th century, conclaves are only held in Rome, with one exception: that in 1800, which was held in Venice since Rome was at war. No conclaves have been held outside the Sistine Chapel since 1846.

    3. Electors
    Electors have to be cardinals and therefore, members of the Cardinals College (the Pope does not have to be a cardinal).

    The number of members of the Cardinals College has changed a lot during the centuries: in the 13th century there were only seven members, while in 1587 there were 70. In the 20th century, especially with John XXIII, the Church tried to increasingly vary the Cardinals’ nationalities. However, Paul VI restricted the number of cardinals to 120 and imposed a rule restricting the age of electors to 80.

    In 2003, John Paul II named 31 more cardinals and raised the maximum number of electors to 135 (the age-limit rule remained). Nowadays, there are 183 members in the College, of which only 117 can vote.




    4. From the death to the new Pope

    4.1. THE POPE’S DEATH
    When the Pope dies, the Camerlengo (a cardinal) has to confirm his death. In order to do that, tradition says that he has to hit the Pope’s head with a hammer made of silver. When he confirms it, he kneels down and prays for his soul. Afterwards, another cardinal issues the death certificate, so a doctor is necessary.

    Then, the Pope’s official objects are destroyed, so that no false documents are made. Afterwards, some special cardinals are told the news and the doyen of the College of Cardinals calls all the cardinals in the world and invites them to Rome. Finally, the bell in St Peter’s Square is rung to inform the world of the death.

    4.2. THE START OF THE CONCLAVE
    After the Pope’s funeral, the conclave begins. It is held in the Sistine Chapel, but the cardinals can also stay in a special building and in the gardens in the Vatican City, but they must not talk to anybody outside the event. In the last conclave, for example, they used electronic gadgetry to prevent outsiders knowing their process or decision before a formal announcement. In the afternoon, they go to the Sistine Chapel where they recite the ‘Veni Creator’ prayer so that the Holy Spirit comes to them and they promise they will abide by the rules.

    Then, a cardinal declares ‘Extra omnes!’, meaning that anybody not taking part in the conclave must leave; except the cardinal himself and a preacher, who meditates with the cardinals. Finally, the cardinals are left alone and the doors are shut.

    4.3. VOTINGS
    The votes are done in secret. Candidates must win at least two thirds of the cardinals’ votes to be named Pope (they are allowed to vote themselves).

    There are two votes every day, one in the morning and another in the afternoon. After that, each cardinal is given a piece of paper to vote for his favourite (only one name per cardinal is allowed). Each cardinal goes to the altar and gives his paper. When all the cardinals have given their papers, three cardinals count the votes aloud, with another three cardinals looking on, in order to prevent cheating. If the number of votes and of cardinals do not match, the papers are burnt and the vote is repeated.

    If nobody wins two thirds of the vote, the papers are burnt with wet straw and black smoke appears. (Otherwise, they are burnt with dry straw and the smoke appears white). In the last conclaves, there were many problems with this system, and the Sistine Chapel almost got burnt and the white smoke appeared grey. To solve this problem, the bells of St Peter’s Square are rung so that all doubts are cleared.

    The conclave lasts as long as it is necessary. After 33 or 34 votes (depending on if they voted the first day or not) if there is no winner, the cardinals can change the rules so that only half of the cardinals vote to choose either of the two most popular cardinals.

    4.4. ACCEPTANCE
    When somebody is elected, the new Pope has to say whether he would like to be Pope or not. If he accepts, he has to say the name by which he wants to be called. If somebody who is not in the room gets elected, he has to be called as soon as possible and nobody outside the conclave must know.

    After that, he is named new Pope and Bishop pf Rome. He is then dressed appropriately and appears on the balcony to give the ‘Urbi et Orbi’ blessing. It is not uncommon for a celebration to be held to mark his election.

    Best wishes,

    Paul
    www.EnglishLanguageExpert.com

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Edit my topic, please

    Hi, Paul!

    Thank you very much for the corrections.

    trousy

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Edit my topic, please

    My pleasure, Trousy.

    Best wishes,

    Paul
    www.EnglishLanguageExpert.com

  5. #5
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    RonBee is offline Moderator
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    Default Re: Edit my topic, please

    Just two things.

    Say votes instead of votings. Also, did you mean to say that the candidates are allowed to vote for themselves?

    ~R

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