I think that listening to them and taking their needs and wishes seriously is essential. I had an elderly Pakistani student who had lived in the UK for decades but only had rudimentary English as she had been taking care of children and grandchildren. When the last grandchild had gone to university, she enrolled on a course. Though her literacy was limited, her principle aim was to master some IT skills as she wanted to stay in touch with them, so she focussed on the internet and what she needed for that. Many would have tried to encourage her to study in different ways.
She started learning English when she was in her seventies and she wanted to be able to master things like email and would spend hours practising skills like remembering and learning her email address, and the questions she needed to ask for help when using the internet in her local library.
Underneath, it's the same; finding out their needs and trying to meet them.
- For Teachers