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  1. #1
    jiang is offline Key Member
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    Default comprehension and grammar

    Dear teachers,
    I have four questions to ask:

    No.1
    (The previous part is a description of what happened on December 1, 1955)

    The boycott lasted 380 days, and cost the bus line millions of dollars. Finally, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that segregation on the buses was unconstitutional. Rosa Parks could now sit anywhere on a bus. Although most of us have forgotten her, the revolution she started changed America.
    Separating the black from the white on buses was not unlawful until___.
    a. early 1956 b. late 1950's
    I think both are correct. 'a' is more accurate while 'b' is more general. Is that right?

    No.2
    All sorts of people are apple-polishers, including politicians and people in high offices-----just about everybody. Oliver Cromwell, the great Enlgish leader, offfered many gifts to win the support of George Fox and his Ouaker group. but failed. Cromwell said, " I see there is a people risen that I cannot win either with gifts, honors, officers or places; but with all other sects and people I can."

    It sounds it is contradictory to each other when I read the first sentence and the example. After reading the first sentence I expect an example to show that everyone is an apple-polisher. But the example shows it is not so, according to my understanding. And the question is:

    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.

    The key is 'a'. But I think 'b' is the key. Is that right?

    No.3
    _________ to catch the train though we left for the station 2 hours ahead of time---the awful jam on the way!
    a. Barely had we time b. We had barely time
    Could you explain what's the difference between the two?

    I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang

  2. #2
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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar

    No.1
    (The previous part is a description of what happened on December 1, 1955)

    The boycott lasted 380 days, and cost the bus line millions of dollars. Finally, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that segregation on the buses was unconstitutional. Rosa Parks could now sit anywhere on a bus. Although most of us have forgotten her, the revolution she started changed America.

    Separating the black from the white on buses was not unlawful until___.
    a. early 1956 b. late 1950's

    The date December 1st, 1955 occurs late in the year 1955. 'late' because 'December' is the last month of the year. 'early (in the year)1956' occurs in January through May. Choice a. describes the wrong date.

    Note, 'late 1950's' refers to 1956 through 1959. December 1st, 1955 occurs in the "mid 1950's". Choice b., the correct answer, is semantically erroneous. But, give only choices a. and b., b. is the one I'd pick.


    No.2
    All sorts of people are apple-polishers, including politicians and people in high offices-----just about everybody. Oliver Cromwell, the great English leader, offfered many gifts to win the support of George Fox and his Ouaker group, but failed. Cromwell said, "I see there is a people risen that I cannot win either with gifts, honors, officers or places; but with all other sects and people I can."

    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.
    The writer uses "Oliver Cromwell' as an example of "All sorts of people are apple-polishers ". Cromwell admits he is an apple-polisher in words, "but with all other sects and people I can (win with gifts, honors, etc.)."

    No.3
    _________ to catch the train though we left for the station 2 hours ahead of time---the awful jam on the way!

    a. Barely had we time b. We had barely time
    Choice a. produces a dependet clause followed by an independent clause:

    Barely had we time to catch the train, though (Dependent Clause)
    We left for the station 2 hours ahead of time (Indepedent Clause)

    Choice b. produces two independent clauses, resulting in a run-on sentence:

    We had barely time to catch the train, though, (Independent Clause)
    We left for the station 2 hours ahead of time (Independent Clause)

    All the best,

  3. #3
    jiang is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar

    & :?
    Dear Casiopea,
    Thank you very much for your explantion.

    For No.1 I made the wrong calculation.

    I still have problem with No.2. How should we understand ' offfered many gifts to win the support of George Fox and his Ouaker group, but failed'? I thought 'failed' means he failed in apple polishing those people. Or did I make a mistake in interpreting the meaning of the sentence?

    For No.3 I think your explanation is too academic for me to understand.
    To me the only difference is that 'a' is an inverted sentence while isn't. Why one is Dependent clause the other isn't?
    Barely had we time to catch the train, though (Dependent Clause)
    We left for the station 2 hours ahead of time (Indepedent Clause)
    This is somewhat complicated. Could you please kindly explain them to me?

    I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang

    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea
    No.1
    (The previous part is a description of what happened on December 1, 1955)

    The boycott lasted 380 days, and cost the bus line millions of dollars. Finally, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed that segregation on the buses was unconstitutional. Rosa Parks could now sit anywhere on a bus. Although most of us have forgotten her, the revolution she started changed America.

    Separating the black from the white on buses was not unlawful until___.
    a. early 1956 b. late 1950's

    The date December 1st, 1955 occurs late in the year 1955. 'late' because 'December' is the last month of the year. 'early (in the year)1956' occurs in January through May. Choice a. describes the wrong date.

    Note, 'late 1950's' refers to 1956 through 1959. December 1st, 1955 occurs in the "mid 1950's". Choice b., the correct answer, is semantically erroneous. But, give only choices a. and b., b. is the one I'd pick.


    No.2
    All sorts of people are apple-polishers, including politicians and people in high offices-----just about everybody. Oliver Cromwell, the great English leader, offfered many gifts to win the support of George Fox and his Ouaker group, but failed. Cromwell said, "I see there is a people risen that I cannot win either with gifts, honors, officers or places; but with all other sects and people I can."

    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.
    The writer uses "Oliver Cromwell' as an example of "All sorts of people are apple-polishers ". Cromwell admits he is an apple-polisher in words, "but with all other sects and people I can (win with gifts, honors, etc.)."

    No.3
    _________ to catch the train though we left for the station 2 hours ahead of time---the awful jam on the way!

    a. Barely had we time b. We had barely time
    Choice a. produces a dependet clause followed by an independent clause:

    Barely had we time to catch the train, though (Dependent Clause)
    We left for the station 2 hours ahead of time (Indepedent Clause)

    Choice b. produces two independent clauses, resulting in a run-on sentence:

    We had barely time to catch the train, though, (Independent Clause)
    We left for the station 2 hours ahead of time (Independent Clause)

    All the best,

  4. #4
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    Default

    Inverting word order makes it dependent because the order means it doesn't stand alone:

    Barely has we time (this can't exist as anindependent sentence)

  5. #5
    jiang is offline Key Member
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    Default

    :?
    Thank you very much for your explanation.
    If the sentence is inverted there must be a clause. If it is not then it can serve as the main clause and 'though...' as adverbial clause. Is that right?

    I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang

    Quote Originally Posted by tdol
    Inverting word order makes it dependent because the order means it doesn't stand alone:

    Barely has we time (this can't exist as anindependent sentence)

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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar

    Quote Originally Posted by jiang
    I thought 'failed' means he failed in apple polishing those people.
    He failed with some people, yes, but he succeeded in apple-polishing other people. :D

  7. #7
    jiang is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar

    Thank you very much for confirming my understanding. This take me back to the choices. It seems both 'a' and 'c' are correct. Is that right?

    I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang
    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea
    Quote Originally Posted by jiang
    I thought 'failed' means he failed in apple polishing those people.
    He failed with some people, yes, but he succeeded in apple-polishing other people. :D

  8. #8
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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar

    Quote Originally Posted by jiang
    Thank you very much for confirming my understanding. This take me back to the choices. It seems both 'a' and 'c' are correct. Is that right?
    There's a choice 'c'?

    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.

  9. #9
    jiang is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar


    Dear Casiopea,
    I am sorry to make you confused. The fact is that to save your time when I typed the choices I omitted the two that are obviously wrong and sent you the two that I didn't understand. But when I replied you yesterday I forgot to change the original 'c' to the 'b' that I sent you. The following are the original choices:
    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. Cromwell was not a good apple-polisher.
    c. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.
    d. George Fox and his Ouaker group were not apple-apolishers.
    May I say both 'a' and 'b' are correct?

    I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang
    Sorry again for the inconvenience I brought you.


    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea
    Quote Originally Posted by jiang
    Thank you very much for confirming my understanding. This take me back to the choices. It seems both 'a' and 'c' are correct. Is that right?
    There's a choice 'c'?

    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.

  10. #10
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    Default Re: comprehension and grammar

    Quote Originally Posted by jiang

    Dear Casiopea,
    I am sorry to make you confused. The fact is that to save your time when I typed the choices I omitted the two that are obviously wrong and sent you the two that I didn't understand. But when I replied you yesterday I forgot to change the original 'c' to the 'b' that I sent you. The following are the original choices:
    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. Cromwell was not a good apple-polisher.
    c. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.
    d. George Fox and his Ouaker group were not apple-apolishers.
    May I say both 'a' and 'b' are correct?

    I am looking forward to hearing from you.

    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang
    Sorry again for the inconvenience I brought you.


    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea
    Quote Originally Posted by jiang
    Thank you very much for confirming my understanding. This take me back to the choices. It seems both 'a' and 'c' are correct. Is that right?
    There's a choice 'c'?

    What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example?
    a. Everybody is an apple-polisher.
    b. There are people who don't like being apple-polished.
    I'd choose 'b'. Choice 'a' is out. Evidence: Cromwell was unable to sway the opinions of certain people, specifically those who did not like being apple-polished.

    All the best,

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