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Thread: next, after

  1. #11
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Strictly,
    I am in Being ("in Beijing" = adverb phrase = predicate adverb)
    He is a student (predicate noun)
    You were with them ("with them" = adverb phrase = predicate adverb)
    He is somebody (predicate pronoun) that I know.

  2. #12
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Soup
    That's what I think is true.

  3. #13
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    Default Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by justinwschang View Post
    He was early (predicate adverb)
    FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Let's get a meaty discussion going.

    But not a subject complement, right? Because those are nominal, and which leads to this question: why can't next be a preposition here, Who is next? (aside from what's obvious: it doesn't have an object, but particle prepositions can occur without an object in phrasal verbs, right? They're often called adverbial in that position, though, to account for it.)

    That is, non-linking forms of the verb BE take adverbs in the predicate, but the form and function of those adverbs aren't always the same. For example,

    She's in the house.
    Form: prepositional phrase <nominal>
    Function: adverbial <tells us where>
    So, given that adverbs give off this kind of duality, why couldn't next in Who's next? be a preposition in form, that is, be nominal and thereby privy to the category "subject complement"? Why is it called a predicate adverb?

    In short, why does the verb BE have to be split into linking and non-linking kinds?

    What's the difference in meaning here?

    Adverb: The person is next => Adjective: the next person
    Adjective: the next person => Adverb: The person is next.

  4. #14
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by Soup View Post
    FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Let's get a meaty discussion going.

    But not a subject complement, right? Because those are nominal, and which leads to this question: why can't next be a preposition here, Who is next? (aside from what's obvious: it doesn't have an object, but particle prepositions can occur without an object in phrasal verbs, right? They're often called adverbial in that position, though, to account for it. I believe that in phrasal verbs, the entire construction is a verb, and not split into verb+adverb+preposition, as in "stand up for" that is treated as one grammatical unit) Also, a phrasal verb may be interposed by a noun or pronoun, as in "make out": He made himself out to be the boss.

    That is, non-linking forms of the verb BE take adverbs in the predicate, but the form and function of those adverbs aren't always the same. For example,

    She's in the house.
    Form: prepositional phrase <nominal>
    Function: adverbial <tells us where>
    So, given that adverbs give off this kind of duality, why couldn't next in Who's next? be a preposition in form, that is, be nominal and thereby privy to the category "subject complement"? Why is it called a predicate adverb?

    In short, why does the verb BE have to be split into linking and non-linking kinds?

    What's the difference in meaning here?

    Adverb: The person is next => Adjective: the next person
    Adjective: the next person => Adverb: The person is next.
    What you say is thought-provoking. Must think about the rest first.

  5. #15
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    Default Re: next, after

    Me, too, Justin. Me, too.

  6. #16
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by Soup View Post
    So, you're saying next is an adverb because it tells us where the person is, right? So,

    Location = adverb
    Who is upstairs in the house? Look above at the clouds.
    Who is in the house upstairs? Look at the clouds above.

    Who is next in line?
    Who is in line next?

    Cool.

    Adjective: Who is (the) next (person in line)?
    Adverb: Who is (the person) next (in line)?
    An excellent dictionary that gives very accurate definitions is Reader's Digest Universal Dictionary. By accurate, I mean that, especially for adverbs and conjunctions, the definition can be actually substituted exactly for the word being defined.
    I don't sell Reader's Digest but the dictionary is worth the fairly stiff price, though it does contain very few errors (but many less well-researched or authored dictionaries do contain not a small number of sometimes even fundamental errors, including website dictionaries).

  7. #17
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by Soup View Post
    So, you're saying next is an adverb because it tells us where the person is, right? So,

    Location = adverb
    Who is upstairs in the house?
    Who is in the house upstairs?
    However, often when the word order changes, the part of speech changes or the meaning changes:
    The above picture is of Darth Vader (adjective)
    The picture above is of Darth Vader (adverb)
    He painted the red door (adjective)
    The painted the door red (noun)

    Who is next in line?
    Who is in line next?

    Cool.

    Adjective: Who is (the) next (person in line)?
    Adverb: Who is (the person) next (in line)?

  8. #18
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by Soup View Post
    FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Let's get a meaty discussion going.

    But not a subject complement, right? Because those are nominal, and which leads to this question: why can't next be a preposition here, Who is next? (aside from what's obvious: it doesn't have an object, but particle prepositions can occur without an object in phrasal verbs, right? They're often called adverbial in that position, though, to account for it.)

    That is, non-linking forms of the verb BE take adverbs in the predicate, but the form and function of those adverbs aren't always the same. For example,

    She's in the house.
    Form: prepositional phrase <nominal>
    Function: adverbial <tells us where>
    So, given that adverbs give off this kind of duality, [I'm not sure what you mean here by duality.]why couldn't next in Who's next? be a preposition in form [I think form (or construction) and function (or usage) are not mutually exclusive or need belong to the same part of speech. Form or construction does not have anything to do with being a part of speech. For example, a preposition phrase (classification by construction) is thus called because it starts with (is headed by) a preposition, but functionally (classification by usage) it may be used as a noun phrase, an adjective phrase, or an adverb phrase.] that is, be nominal and thereby privy to the category "subject complement"? Why is it called a predicate adverb?

    In short, why does the verb BE have to be split into linking and non-linking kinds? I thought BE is always a linking verb, there is no two kinds.

    What's the difference in meaning here?

    Adverb: The person is next => Adjective: the next person
    Adjective: the next person => Adverb: The person is next.

  9. #19
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    Cool Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by justinwschang View Post
    engee30
    The word everwhere (for example) is an adverb. The leaves are everywhere (= predicate adverb of are). Again: I was there (adverb) = I was in/at that place.
    I know I shouldn't be doing this (since I am neither a native speaker of English nor a teacher of English), but you seem to be getting the things wrong.

    I've never heard of a predicate adverb, I'm afraid. All I know about the verb be is as follows:

    be [linking (copular) verb]
    My boss is always late. - the predicate adjective (late) modifying the subject (my boss)

    be [intransitive verb taking an adverbial]
    The leaves are everywhere. - everywhere doesn't modify the subject (the leaves) since it is an adverb here, and it's only adverbs, as far as I know, that can modify verbs, not adjectives

    The point is that there are two different verbs of be, and you mixed them up, I guess.

  10. #20
    justinwschang is offline Member
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    Default Re: next, after

    Quote Originally Posted by Soup View Post
    FOOD FOR THOUGHT: Let's get a meaty discussion going.


    She's in the house.
    Form: prepositional phrase <nominal>
    Function: adverbial <tells us where>
    So, given that adverbs give off this kind of duality, why couldn't next in Who's next? be a preposition in form, that is, be nominal and thereby privy to the category "subject complement"? Why is it called a predicate adverb?
    I have found that students and some textbooks can get somewhat mixed-up about the types of phrases.

    By usage (or function), there are:
    (a) Noun phrases (including appositives and complements);
    (b) Adjective phrases;
    (c) Adverb phrases.

    By construction (or form), there are:
    (a) Absolute phrases, consisting of nouns only (one or more), and their modifiers (adjectives modifying nouns, and adverbs modifying adjectives) if any;
    (b) Phrases headed by a Preposition;
    (c) Phrases starting with an Infinitive preceded by to (often also preceded by a pronoun or adverb, such as what, which, who, whom, whose, when, where, how, why);
    (d) Phrases starting with a Continuous Participle or Perfect Participle (sometimes preceded by a noun, pronoun, or adverb)

    Examples

    This shop sells branded labels (noun phrase)
    Birds of a feather flock together (adjective phrase)
    Don't let it get under your skin (adverb phrase)

    Branded labels are sold here (absolute phrase)
    Falling leaves drift by the window (absolute phrase, falling = adjective)
    Birds of a feather flock together (preposition phrase)
    He rushed to go to the movies (infinitive phrase)
    Doing nothing can be very boring (participle phrase)
    Shoes made in China are fairly good (participle phrase)

    Combining usage + construction:

    A broken window invites thieves (subject = noun/absolute phrase)
    We consider her the best student (complement = noun/absolute phrase, NOT adjective)
    He reminded us of our duty (complement = noun/preposition phrase)
    I'm thinking about whom to call (complement = noun/preposition phrase)
    He wants to start a business (object = noun/infinitive phrase)
    When to begin is the question (subject = noun/infinitive phrase)
    Teach them how to do this (object = noun/infinitive phrase)
    Tell me what to cook (object = noun/infinitive phrase)
    Lazing about has its merits (subject = noun/participle phrase)
    Always sleeping well keeps you fit (subject = noun/participle phrase)
    They'd like having a try at this (object = noun/participle phrase)

    Haier, a Chinese brand, sells well (adjective/absolute phrase)
    A careful person, she spends little (adjective/absolute phrase)
    Birds with singing voices cost a lot (adjective/preposition phrase)
    The boy in the loud shirt is crying (adjective/preposition phrase)
    Beer from Qingdao is good (adjective/preposition phrase)
    His support for our cause is steadfast (adjective/preposition phrase)
    The girls at our school are snooty (adjective/preposition phrase)
    The law to fight waste was passed (adjective/infinitive phrase)
    His call to close ranks went unheeded (adjective/infinitive phrase)
    Taken aback, the thief ran off (adjective/participle phrase)
    Looking pleased, he sat down (adjective/participle phrase)
    He likes his steak well done (adjective/participle phrase)
    Plants tended with care grow well (adjective/participle phrase)

    They returned on the last flight (adverb/preposition phrase)
    She went to the grocers nearby (adverb/preposition phrase)
    She's good at doing housework (adverb/preposition phrase)
    He was loaded with tons of work (adverb/preposition phrase)
    We are going for a stroll (adverb/preposition phrase)
    I went to meet him for lunch (adverb/infinitive phrase)
    He's lucky to have rich parents (adverb/infinitive phrase)


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