I am a native speaker, and so I would have been marked as incorrect also...unless...unless...(lol)
Let me assure you, "receipt" as the answer is incorrect.
In some business transaction, when I have, say, paid a blll/settled an account, or paid a deposit, the other person will write out a receipt.
We refer to 'TV reception", the receiving of television signals by the aerial or dish outside the home.
If I were forced to make the choice, then I would have to pick "reception". However, the sentence suggests that what is referred to is a collection of weather instruments which measure temperature and humidity and other data relating to the weather, and then transmit this back to some central monitoring and collection point. We would not speak of a thermometer as 'receiving' information, or that the thermometer (and other measuring instruments) are there for the "reception" of the temperature etc.
An instrument which receives and then re-transmits information is called a transponder.
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