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5.'qal'+ vocative sentence
The vocative sentence contains the person of things called, the vocative which is generally preceded by one of the vocative particles such as يا,أ,أيا ,أي ,and وا . Vocative particles require after them a noun not defined by the article, except for the God name الله . The noun after the vocative particle is put sometimes in the nominative, sometimes in the accusative. The nominative is used when the particular person or thing called is directly addressed by the speaker, and no explanatory term of any description is appended to it .The accusative is used when the person or thing called is indefinite or not directly addressed by the speaker, as when a blind man says يا رجلا خذ بيدي. Moreover, when it is directly addressed by the speaker but has an explanatory term appended to it, namely either a genitive or an objective complement or a preposition with its complement or a determinative or limiting term .The most popular particle that used in MSA is يا.Consider the following example:
(example in MSA)
In the above example the vocative sentence is introduced by the vocative particle ya, it is composed of the vocative clause (vocative calause in MSA) and the answering clause that introduced by the connected particle fa(NP IN MSA).
It is common in MSA to delete the vocative particle with (أيها). Consider the following examples:
62.( EXAMPLE IN MSA)In example (62) (أيها) functions as a vocative which indicate the person called. This vocative suppose to be preceded by the vocative particle يا .
In MSA, there is another type of sentences which can be considered as a kind of vocative sentence in which an addressing phrase is used as in (63)
In this example ,(ADDRESSIN PH) is an addressing phrase functions as a vocative and the VP is the main clause.
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