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Thread: stress


    • Join Date: Dec 2007
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    #1

    Wink stress

    iwanna learn more about stress and how can master it

  1. rewboss's Avatar

    • Join Date: Feb 2006
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    #2

    Re: stress

    Not easy.

    There is a rule of sorts. If a word has two or three syllables, it's often stressed on the first syllable. If a word has more than three syllables, it's often stressed on the "antepenultimate" syllable -- that is, the syllable before the syllable before the last syllable.

    recap
    telephone
    disorganized

    Unfortunately, there are so many exceptions, the rule isn't much use. For example:

    alarm
    computer
    disobey
    influenza

    Sometimes you can even change the meaning of a word by shifting stress:

    content (noun: something which is contained)
    content (adjective: happy)

    refuse (noun: garbage, trash, rubbish)
    refuse (verb: the opposite of "accept")

    Additionally, there are a few differences between British and American English.

    I think the only way you will learn all this is to listen to native speakers as often as possible.

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    #3

    Re: stress

    Over the years, I’ve made some generalizations while teaching elementary phonology to my ESL students which you might find useful. As Rewboss suggests, and I quote, “The only way you will learn all this is to listen to native speakers as often as possible.”

    A. Some Generalizations:
    1. Sufficing does not change position of stress of a noun but does attract it to the syllable just before the suffix syllable or the one before that syllable.

    E.g. origin º original

    Exception: open ºopenness

    2. Stress a heavy syllable; never a weak one. Sometimes strong syllable don=t get be stressed as well.

    3. Majority of the 2-syllable words (n. & adj.) are stressed on the 1st syllable (front weight).

    Exception: <revert> v. \rw0vf:rt\.

    4. Majority of the 3-syllable words are stressed on the 1st or 2nd syllable.

    E.g. difficult

    5. Alternate stress pattern in multi-syllable words.

    Eg. <gneralization> /1®en.cr.aw.0zew.•cn/

    6. Majority of the English words are stressed on the base syllable.

    7. $90% of English 2-syllable nouns are stressed on the 1st syllable while $60% of English 2-syllable verbs are stressed on the 2nd syllable.

    8. Stress syllable before <-tion> as in Anation@.

    9. Stress syllable before <-ity>, <-ible>, <-ify>, <-ical> and <-logy> as in
    Anationality@.


    B. 2-syllable or 2-word (compound) Words:
    1. Stress the 1st syllable as a first trial as most of the 2-syllable words are accented on the 1st syllable.

    Eg. water

    2. If the word can be a noun or verb:

    2.1. Stress the 2nd syllable if it is a verb.

    E.g. produce, record

    Exception: father, open.

    2.2. Stress the 1st if it is a noun.

    E.g. produce, record

    3. If the word can be a verb or an adjective:

    3.1. Stress the 1st syllable if it is used as an adjective.

    E.g. perfect

    Exception: content

    3.2. Stress the 2nd syllable if it is used as a verb as in 2.1. above.

    4. If the word can be a noun or an adjective:

    4.1. Stress the 1st syllable if the word is used as a noun.

    E.g. complex, inverse

    4.2. Stress the 2nd if the word is used as an adjective.

    E.g. complex, inverse

    5. Stress the 1st word if the word is made up of 2 individual (compound) words.

    E.g. airport, freeway

    6. Stress the 2nd syllable of a 2-word verb.

    E.g. go away

    7. Stress the 1st syllable of a 2-word noun.

    E.g. Bedroom

    8. Stress the 2nd word in a 2-word (compound) verb.

    E.g. outsmart

    9. Stress the 2nd syllable in a reflective pronoun.

    E.g. myself

    10. If the word is a verb:

    10.1. Stress the 2nd syllable of a verb if it is a heavy syllable and if not, the 1st.

    E.g. Apply

    10.2. Do not stress the final \o\ (the long Ao@) as in Afollow@ and Aborrow@.

    11. In 2 syllable words containing double consonant, stress the 1st.

    12. In a 2 syllable root words when the 2nd contains more than 1 vowel, stress the 2nd except of the 2nd vowel is a magic-e, stress the 1st.

    E.g. elite

    C. 3-syllable or 3-word Words:
    1. Stress the 1st or 2nd syllable as a first trial.

    E.g. newspaper

    2. Stress the last syllable it contains <-ate>, <-ise>, <-ize>.

    E.g. indicate, organize

    3. Stress the 2nd syllable of a 3-word verb.

    E.g. get out of

    D. Adjective-noun Compounds or Phrases:
    1. If it is a phrase, place primary stress on the noun, minor stress on the adjective.

    E.g. black board, green home

    2. If it is a compound word, place primary stress on the adjective, minor stress on the noun.

    E.g. black board, green home


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