Here goes. "The ringing" and "the shouting" are special cases. Where the ing form is preceded by the definite article "the" and followed by the preposition "of" , as these two are, then all verbal force is lost and the words become pure nouns.
"Was heard". A passive verb therefore "heard" is a past participle.
"surging" A present participle acting as an adjective.
"Being and working" Both present participles heading adjective phrases describing " I " the subject of the sentence.
"falling-away" I don't know but it appears here to me as a compound word with the function of a noun, being governed by a compound prepostion "due to" [ should be (owing to)] and having the adjective recent qualifying it. I dont think it can be a gerund as it does not end in "ing".