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  1. #1
    Lenka is offline Senior Member
    Join Date
    May 2004
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    fall/increase (by) 5%

    Is there a rule about when the preposition "by" should be used (when talking about percents - falling, increasing, rising etc.)?

    I've read the sentences below in different articles today:
    1. ... profits rose 11 percent to 2.7bn dollars.
    2. Revenues increased 11.6 percent from 229bn dollars to 256bn dollars.
    3. They said pre-tax profit soared 18.5 percent at their stores.
    4. ... output has fallen by up to 20% in one year.


    My question is: when do you use "by" to say how much "by how many percent" something grew/fell etc.?
    Do you use "by" just with the verb "to fall"?

  2. #2
    Anglika is offline No Longer With Us
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    Oct 2006
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    Re: fall/increase (by) 5%

    No rule that I am aware of.

    In your sentences, you could use "by" in #1-#3. In #4 you need "by" as it is part of the phrase "by up to ...."

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