Determine which of the following bracketed sequences in the
sentences form constituents.
a. If a bracketed sequence is not a constituent, support your answer by
demonstrating this with two constituency tests that indicate the non constituency
of the sequence.
b. If a bracketed sequence is a constituent, support your answer with one
Constituency test that demonstrates this.

1. [The tragedy] upset the entire family.
This is a constituent because after using the stand alone test I see that this sentence can be used to answer a question. For example “What upset the entire family?” can be answered with “the tragedy”. So it is a constituent

2. The environmental [movement is gaining momentum.]
This is not a constituent because after using two test. The move as a unit test Preposing (Psuedoclefting): this sentence can not move as a unit. [movement is gaining momentum.] The environmental, does not work.
The second test I used is the stand alone test. [movement is gaining momentum.] does not work alone, and it can not answer any questions

3. The goslings [swam across] the lake.
This is not a constituent, after using two test, first the stand alone which shows that
“Swam across” can not stand alone it is a fragment, and can not answer any questions. The second test conducted is the move as a unit. Swam across the lake the goslings is not grammatical.

Looks good to me.

Originally Posted by Anglika
Looks good to me.

Really? Good.

Hi

Is the bracketed phrase a constituent or not? Use 3 const. tests to justify your answer.

On leaving the ferry, his car [collided with the other car] coming from the opposite direction.

Thank you for your quick help! :)

Originally Posted by hazeleyedgirl
Hi

Is the bracketed phrase a constituent or not? Use 3 const. tests to justify your answer.

On leaving the ferry, his car [collided with the other car] coming from the opposite direction.

Thank you for your quick help! :)
See a list of constituency tests here Constituent (linguistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and here http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Ling...nstituency.pdf

Thank you for your reply. but could anyone do it for me? so I will be sure that I got it right.

Thank you!

Originally Posted by hazeleyedgirl
Thank you for your reply. but could anyone do it for me? so I will be sure that I got it right.

Thank you!
You do the work, we do the commenting

I don't have any idea but I'll try ;)

1. Fronting:

on leaving the ferry, [collided with the other car] his car coming from the opposite direction.

2. do-so substitution:

On leaving the ferry, his car [collided with the other car] coming from opposite direction and mine did not [do so] coming coming from opposite direction.

Nothing comes to my mind :(

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