Here are the 7 basic sentence types for English:
1. S-V Angry customers complain.
2. S-V-O The manager helped us gladly.
3. S-LV-N Her decision was a terrible mistake.
4. S-LV-Adj My friend suddenly looked pale.
5. S-V-IO-O Her cousin often showed visitors the capital.
6. S-V-O-OC They called the anonymous benefactor a saint.
7. S-V-O-Adj We painted the house green again.
From Structure of English
Clause elements combine to form clauses. The number of patterns is small. According to David Crystal (The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, p. 221) there are only seven basic types.
S + V: I / yawned
S + V + O: Fred / opened / the door
S + V + C: The dinner / is / ready
S + V + A: Dick Whittington / went / to London
S + V + O + O: Romeo / gave / Juliet / a kiss
S + V + O + C: Henry/ got/ his feet/ very wet
S + V + O + A: Sam / put / the beer / in the cellar
We can vary these patterns using directives (such as advising, instructing or commanding): Turn left at the junction. Help yourself to a beer. Go to hell! You be quiet.
We can also vary the patterns through pro-forms (words which replace long constructions) and ellipsis (omitting an understood element).
Pro-forms: I've got a lovely cold drink and you've got one as well.
Ellipsis: I'd like to drink some beer, but I won't. (drink some beer understood)