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    #1

    Exclamation Nominative + Infinitive construction, urgent

    Hello, it's me again with another strange question. I have a multiple choice exam tomorrow and I still don't understand something... Please help me out with the following question.

    Specify the type of the infinitival construction in the following complex
    sentence: She tries to improve her writing.
    a. PRO-infinitive
    b. For to-infinitive
    c. Nominative plus Infinitive Construction
    d. Accusative plus Infinitive Construction

    My initial answer was PRO-infinitive but, after reading about that construction, I'm not so sure anymore. I can't seem to insert the missing PRO into it.

    My second choice would be Nominative plus Infinitive Construction and I would like to know if it's right.

    The problem is that I've read my course material and the verb "try" is listed as transitive, therefore [to improve her writing] should function as DO. But that doesn't help me in any way with picking an answer for this question.

    Thank you

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    #2

    Re: Nominative + Infinitive construction, urgent

    Quote Originally Posted by allience View Post
    Specify the type of the infinitival construction in the following complex
    sentence: She tries to improve her writing.

    a. PRO-infinitive
    b. For to-infinitive
    c. Nominative plus Infinitive Construction
    d. Accusative plus Infinitive Construction
    From Infinitive Clauses: General Properties of Infinitive Complements,
    The infinitive lacks an overt subject. This is probably the most frequent situation, since
    it is a characteristic property of non-finite complements that they are often subjectless (cf.
    Emonds (1985)).

    a. They tried to arrive in time.
    b. She promised her mother to study for the exam.
    c. The company persuaded him to resign.

    Even though no subject is overtly present, in each example, speakers always identify the subject without fail. In (2a) the understood subject necessarily is they, in (2b) the implicit subject
    is she, in (2c), it is the referent of him. Notice that this interpretation can be brought to light by
    finite paraphrases of the infinitive complement.

    b. She promised her mother that she would study.
    c. The company persuaded him that he should resign.
    ____________________
    Practice exam source: http://www.spiruharet.ro/Licenta/lls..._engleza_A.pdf

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    #3

    Re: Nominative + Infinitive construction, urgent


    EXAMPLES

    a. PRO infinitive
    Ex: I agreed (PRO) to do what she asked.
    => It was agreed that I should do what she asked.
    Ex: She learned (PRO) to speak English.
    Note, in these constructions, the subject is the doer of the action. Not all PRO constructs can be re-worded; e.g., PRO to do => I should do, but we can tell who the subject of the infinitive is by looking at the participants in the sentence; e.g., She learned to speak English.

    b. For ... to-infinitive
    Ex: It is rare for two people to talk about murder on a personal level.
    Ex: It now remains for you to school your child.
    (See more 'Full 'for to-infinitives' here http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jlawl...ershandout.pdf and here http://www.humanities.manchester.ac....S/cuyckens.pdf)


    c. Nominative plus Infinitive Construction
    THE NOMINATIVE WITH THE INFINITIVE , which consist of a noun / pronoun (in the Nominative) + Long Infinitive , is used:

    1. with the following vb. In the passive: to accept , to believe , to expect , to find(out) , to hear , to imagine , to know , to notice , to say , to see , to suppose , etc.
    She is said to be a very intelligent student

    2.with the following vb. in the activ voice: to appear , to chance , to happen , to prove , to seem etc.

    The hunter changed to see the bear before I did.

    3.with such constructions as : to be likely , to be certain /positive , to be lucky/unlucky , to be sure.

    My son is likely to know what her new address is.

    4. After ordinal numbers , superlatives and the only:

    John was the first to finish the exercise.
    d. Accusative plus Infinitive Construction
    Ex: I saw her go; we saw him leave.
    Ex: She made me eat the vegetables.
    Ex: The teacher let him stand outside the classroom
    Note, in these constructions the subject (I, she, he, the teacher) isn't the doer of the actions go, leave, eat, stand.
    THE ACCUSATIVE WITH THE NOMINATIVE , which consist of a noun/pronoun (in the Accusative) + an Infinitive , is used:

    1.with vb. of perception : to hear , to feel , to notice , to see , to perceive and after the vb to let and to make. After these vb , The Short Infinitive must be used:

    I saw him go into the house.
    That noise made her look back.


    One should make the difference between:

    I heard her singing in the garden. (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
    I heard her sing at the concert. (SHORT INFINITIVE)

    2. after vb expressing volition : to demand , to desire , to forbid ,to intend , to want ,to wish.

    I want him arrive there before noon.

    3. after vb expressing mental activities: to believe , to consider , to expect , to imagine , to know , to suppose , to think , to understand ,etc.

    They didnít expect her to arrive in time

    4. after vb of command or permission: to allow , to command , to force , to oblige ,to order, to permit ,etc.

    The teacher allowed me to leave the classroom.

    5. after impersonal constructions:

    Itís imposible for them to know where we are.

    6. after such vb as : to advise , to choose , to challenge , to convince , to send .

    Mother advised us not to run in the street.

    Source: Present Tense, Past Tense, Future Tense, Infinitive constructions, Model verbs, Passive Voice referat

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