Post-modifiers comprise all the items placed after the head. These post-modifiers are mainly realized by prepositional phrases, finite clauses (or relative clauses), nonfinite clauses
, adjective phrases, noun phrases or adverbial phrases:
Ex: ... the girl speaking fluently
=> Reduced relative: The girl; e.g., who is
a) Clauses with a present participle correspond to relative clauses in which the relative pronoun is subject and the verb may be present, past or future, progressive or non-progressive, according to the context
e.g. The man working behind the desk is my cousin.
A tile falling from a roof damaged his car.
Obs: Even verbs which cannot have the progressive form in finite clauses can appear in participial form (e.g. It was a mixture consisting of water, oil and vinegar.)
b) Clauses with a past participle also correspond to relative clauses that have the relative pronoun as subject
e.g. The car repaired by the mechanic is very old.
Obs: Sometimes, a participial clause may be ambiguous (e.g. The girl, giving such intelligent answers, was highly praised by her teachers.)
c) Clauses with a to-infinitive correspond to relative clauses where the relative pronoun can be subject (e.g. The man to help you is Dan.), object (e.g. The man to see is Dan.) or adverbial (e.g.
The place to stay is the guest house.)
The infinitive may have its own subject introduced by the preposition for (e.g. Here is a book for you to read.)
Obs: In some cases, the infinitive is active in form and passive in meaning (e.g. There are many difficulties to overcome.). In other cases, either active or passive infinitives are possible (e.g. Here is a list of people to invite/to be invited; There are many letters to write/to be written; The man to consult/to be consulted is Jim.)