'You have the opportunity to respond to disputed information'-- the 'to' is not grammatically associated with 'disputed' at all, Jack. The word units are 'respond to' (2-word verb collocation) and 'disputed information' (adj + n)'
I responded to disputed information.
I responded to the disputed information.
I reacted against disputed information.
I waited for improved information.
So this is an exception here, where after 'to' you don't use the base word? How do you know this? Could you give me some more examples?
1. You have the opportunity to respond to disputed information.
Here's a trick: If you can add the words 'in order to' then you can use a base verb, like this,
A. You have the opportunity to respond in order todispute information. (OK)
In A., 'in order to' functions as an adverb and so if you can add it to the sentence and the sentence sounds good, then you know that 'to' is functioning as part of a verb (i.e., a to-infinitive verb) because adverbs modify verbs.
If you can't add 'in order to', then you know 'to' is not functioning as part of an infinitive verb, and if it's not functioning as part of a verb, then it must be a preposition. There are two to's: 1) the to-infinitive, which is a verb form, and 2) the preposition to. As a preposition 'to' takes an object, like, say, 'information':
EX: to respond to information in order to respond to information (Verb)
in order to respond to information (Preposition + Object)
In B. below, 'in order to' doesn't work, which tells us that 'to' is not a verb form:
B. You have the opportunity to respond in order to disputed information. (Not OK)
In B. 'disputed' functions as an adjective. It tells us what kind of information. Here's the test:
Q: What kind of information do you have the opportunity to respond to?
A: Disputed information. (Adjective)
In short, if you aren't sure if you should use 'to' + base form or 'to' + object, add the words "in order to".
EX: I want to go to see her.
What is the function of 'to'? Is it part of a verb or is it a preposition? Let's test it:
I want to go in order to see her. (OK)
'to' functions as part of a verb; it's an infinitive verb form, so the verb 'see' should be in its base form.