- For Teachers
This is the continuation of the other essay under "Franklin Roosevelt", I need someone to point the errors of this.
The next year, Franklin and Eleanor had another son, and named him Franklin Delano, Jr., in memory of the son they lost. Ironically, he was born at Compobello, the same place Roosevelt had frequented as a young boy. Also that year, Roosevelt was defeated in the Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate by James W. Gerard. The setback would not discourage Roosevelt from continuing to pursue his ultimate goal of becoming President. In March of 1916, the Roosevelts had their last child, John Aspinwall, who was born in Washington, D.C.
February 3, 1917, Roosevelt received word from Secretary Daniels while he was in Santo Domingo on business that he needed to return to Washington. Germany had announced its intention to begin submarine warfare. On April 2, he listened to Wilson’s war message and learned that war against Germany was imminent. In November, Roosevelt’s had his plan for a North Sea mine barrage approved after a long dispute amongst Navy officials. Franklin Roosevelt left Brooklyn, New York, on a destroyer for an inspection trip in Europe in July of 1918. He inspected installations in England, France, and Italy until September. When he returned to New York, he once again became seriously ill with influenza. Three months later, after overcoming the illness, Roosevelt sailed on the George Washington with his wife. The boat was headed for Europe on a mission to dismantle American Navy installations. On the way to Europe, they stopped in Boston and had a luncheon meeting with Wilson. Wilson convinced Roosevelt that the United States had to join the League of Nations.
The influence of FDR is evident in the fact that the President of the United States felt the need to acquire Roosevelt’s approval before making a decision of such magnitude. A couple months later, The Republican senators made an attempt to involve FDR in a Navy scandal at Newport, charging that he had authorized highly objectionable methods in collecting evidence in homosexual cases. These charges were eventually dropped. However, the situation is yet another example of Roosevelt’s tough-mindednes. At the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco on July 6, 1920, Roosevelt was nominated for Vice President to run with Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, and he immediately began to campaign in Chicago.
One month later, he resigned his post as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in order to better concentrate on this position. Unfortunately, Roosevelt and Cox lost by a landslide in this election on November 2 to Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. Roosevelt felt that his time would come, and he still did not see anything blocking his path to the presidency. Upon losing the election, Roosevelt returned to law practice with a firm called Emmet, Marvin and Roosevelt. At this time, he was also named vice president of the Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland, in charge of the New York office.
Later in 1921, Roosevelt contracted infantile paralyses, also known as poliomyelitis, or polio for short. He was taken to Presbyterian Hospital in New York City when the condition worsened, and he was treated for one month. After, he went home and was basically bed-ridden until he was fitted with steel leg braces that helped him walk. Of all the illnesses Roosevelt was stricken with in his life, polio had to be the most serious. However, most people will agree that the most successful part of his career did not occur until after this major setback. Leave it to Roosevelt to accomplish something that improbable. Through all of this hardship, Roosevelt still managed to become president of the American Construction Council for six years. He also became the presidential campaign manager for Alfred E. Smith.
In 1924, FDR delivered the nominating speech for Smith in Madison Square Garden on crutches. He called Smith the “Happy Warrior” of the political battlefield, a name that stuck with Smith throughout his career. Toward the end of that year, Roosevelt ended his law partnership with Marvin and Emmet, citing old-fashioned styles that were not conducive with his own beliefs as the reason. He entered into a new partnership with D. Basil O’Connor.
In 1926, FDR published his first book titled, Whither Bound. The next year, he founded the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation for the treatment of polio victims. Another book, The Happy Warrior, Alfred E. Smith, is published later in 1927. A nomination for Roosevelt came in 1928 by Alfred Smith for the governorship of New York. He won the election, and in 1929, F.D.R. was inaugurated governor. He changed everything Governor Smith had set up by replacing Secretary of the State Robert Moses with Edward J. Flynn, Industrial Commissioner Dr. James A. Hamilton with Miss Frances Perkins, and decided not to reappoint Belle Moskowitz as his secretary.
His first year in office was an extremely successful one. For this reason, he was re-elected on November 4 of the following year. In the next two years, Roosevelt called for a banking reform to protect depositors, approved bill regulating hours of labor for women and children in New York State, and gave the address at the opening of the Empire State Building, among other beneficial decisions. It would seem that this position was a major stepping-stone for Roosevelt in his quest to become President. Not only was he given a chance to implement some of his own ideas, but he was also re-acclimated to the political environment. This would prove beneficial in the coming years.
FDR’s Government – Not Politics was published in 1932, and it may have helped him move closer towards his goal of becoming President. July 1, 1932, Roosevelt was nominated for President of the United States on the fourth ballot. He won the election on November 8, and in 1933, FDR was inaugurated. During his first “Hundred Days,” as the first three months have come to be known, many important events occurred under Roosevelt’s leadership.
One act of extreme importance was the Emergency Banking Relief Act. This movement placed banks under federal control and provided for their re-opening. Also, the Economy Act was signed, which saved about $243 million. During this time, Roosevelt signed a bill establishing the Civilian Conservation Corps. to create employment for young men and to aid in reforestation work. Another extremely important decision was his request that Congress create a Tennessee Valley Authority, which proved to be very useful. During the “Hundred Days,” Roosevelt signed the Johnson-O’Malley Act, which provided federal aid to states for Indian welfare. The United States also eliminated the gold standard, hence raising domestic prices. He signed the Federal Securities Act, which provided regulations to require full disclosure to investors on new securities. Lastly, he signed the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), which created today’s National Recovery Administration (NRA). This supervised industry’s attempt at self-regulation by establishing fair trade in competition.
FDR also published another book in 1934 entitled, On the Way. Roosevelt’s first term was very successful as he finally got a chance to implement his own ideas, and the people began to have faith in his decisions. Proof is in the fact that many people attributed the end of the Great Depression directly to Roosevelt. It is possible that because he was President when the Depression ended, some saw him as almost superhuman, and they would support any decision he made.
In 1936, Roosevelt was re-elected, and on January 20, 1937, he was inaugurated once again. On March 1, he signed the Retirement Act, which removed income tax hardships from justices who retired at 70. On May 1, he signed the Neutrality Act, which gave him much power. On August 26, he signed the Revenue Act of 1937, which tried to help income taxes.
Then, on December 12, Japanese planes sunk the United States gunboat, Panay on the Yangtze River. Roosevelt forced Japan to apologize and pay $2 million in reparations. It is almost as if everything Roosevelt tried to do, he did. He had power like no other President in the United States’ history.
On January 20, 1941, Roosevelt became the first President of the United States to be inaugurated for the third straight term. Throughout this term, the United States was involved in World War II. Roosevelt’s reputation as one of our greatest Presidents was taken to a new level during these years, probably due to the success that the United States had in the war, both on the European front and the Pacific front.
Furthermore, the fact that life on the mainland carried on as smoothly as it did is often attributed directly to Roosevelt’s leadership.
On January 20, 1945, Roosevelt was inaugurated for his unprecedented fourth and final term. The fact that this term would be so short was obviously unknown at the time, but Roosevelt was intent on completing the war and restoring peace among the involved countries. From February 4 -11, he attended the Yalta Conference along with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Russia’s Premier Joseph Stalin, among others. Most decisions from this meeting were not released until after the war, but the future implementation of some of these decisions can undoubtedly be directly linked to Roosevelt. Unfortunately, Roosevelt could not complete even the first year of his final term.