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Thread: until

  1. #1
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    Default until

    Hi teachers!
    A)Situation :"I had to pay a tax (I don't know if it's the right word) to the library otherwise I couldn't loan other books". So if I want to tell that to a friend (the tax is already payed) using "until" should I say
    1) I couldn't take/loan books until I PAY the tax or
    2) I couldn't take/loan books until I HAD PAYED the tax or
    3) I couldn't take/loan books until I PAYED the tax

    B) Another question with until....
    What is more natural or correct
    1) You are not going out you have finished your homework
    2) You are not going out you finish your homework

    Can somebody give me some "rules" because I ALWAYS have problem with this kind of sentences (for example future in the past)

    Thanks

  2. #2
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    Default Re: until

    Quote Originally Posted by fab54
    Hi teachers!
    A)Situation :"I had to pay a tax (I don't know if it's the right word) to the library otherwise I couldn't loan other books". So if I want to tell that to a friend (the tax is already payed) using "until" should I say
    1) I couldn't take/loan books until I PAY the tax or
    2) I couldn't take/loan books until I HAD PAYED the tax or
    3) I couldn't take/loan books until I PAYED the tax
    A. I wasn't able to take books out until I had paid the overdue charges.

    Sentence A. expresses a connection between two events: (Event 1) wasn't able to take books out and (Event 2) I had paid the charges. The second event happened first (i.e., unless/before or after). That is, the 'have -ed' structure expresses the following: (Note, they mean the same thing)

    First I paid the charges and then I was able to take books out.
    Before I was able to take out books, I had paid the charges.
    I was able to take out books after I had paid the charges.

    In sentence B. below, the simple past expresses a fact or a general truth, something like, unless:

    B. I wasn't able to take books out until (i.e., unless) I paid the overdue charges.

    Quote Originally Posted by fab54
    1) You are not going out you have finished your homework
    2) You are not going out you finish your homework
    2) You are not going out until/unless you finish your homework.

    1) You are not going out until/before you have finished your homework.

  3. #3
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    Default Re: until

    Thank you for your answers and explanation. (Y)

  4. #4
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    Default Re: until

    You're welcome. :D

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