Wow! That's quite a mouthful!
Well, let's take it a little at a time.
It says that new ideas encounter "sedimentation". That means, in context, that new ideas have to compete with old ideas--not a remarkable concept.
"In analyzing what is regarded as conventional wisdom"In critiquing what passes for common sense as 'the residue of absolutely basic and commonly-agreed, consensual wisdoms
That is my best guess.
In my opinion, that writer is trying to show that he is smarter than the reader by presenting the reader with material that is tendentious and obtuse. (What do you think, TDOL?) It is up to you, the reader, to decide if it is worth your time to read that kind of stuff.