I have four sentences and I don't know how to draw tree structures and define the form and function of Gerund.
1. His losing all that money bothers me
2. Mary gave waterskiing high marks.
3. A healthy exercise is running to the ice cream parlor.
4. Do you call your limb jogging running?
I don't know how gerund will be defined in sentences.
In the fourth question I can't realize why jogging and running can be next to each other.
I send you three images, I have draw. I hope you will show me they are true or not, and help me to see the function and form of gerunds.
The fourth sentence is so difficult to draw, how two word jogging and running can operate like that.
I don't know these tree diagrams are true or not.
Please help me!
I hope someone who knows a lot about tree diagrams will offer help in answering your questions. In the meantime, here are a few comments:
1 In your diagram “his losing all that money etc”, you give the gerund “losing” a v-ing label. In tree diagrams, are you not asked to make a distinction between v-ing present participle and v-ing gerund? It’s true they have the same form but the present participle has an adjectival function and the gerund acts like a noun.
2 Still on the subject of gerunds, I see you have given “running to the ice cream parlour” a VP node, which I’m not too happy about. It is a Gerund Phrase. How do you label a Gerund Phrase in tree diagrams: NP, GP or v-ing?
3You say “In the fourth question I can't realize why jogging and running can be next to each other.” A paraphrase would be, “Do you consider your limb jogging to be the same thing as running?” Does that help?
Apart from these comments, your labels seem to me to be perfectly correct.
Good luck! It's fascinating, isn't it