(Not a teacher)
The first one means to me, "May I have $10.00 in change for this $10.00 bill?" (or it could be asking if the bill could be changed into another currency).
The second and third may also have the first meaning above, but they also could be asking if the store has enough change to give back a large amount of change for a small purchase with a $10.00 bill. Clerks often ask if one has anything (any bill) smaller.