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  1. #1
    bluejulee is offline Newbie
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    Use of "by", "however", and commas

    Hello,

    I have three grammatical questions that I am hoping to get some clarifications on.

    1. Use of "by"
    Is it wrong or the meaning of the sentence change if I put "by" in the following sentence?
    We derived the model (by) using the factors.

    2. "however"
    When we use "however" in the middle of an independent clause, how do we determine where it should go? For example,
    Waste management systems are improving. The environment, however, is still getting worse.

    3. When I list the following courses
    - English
    - Society, Technology and Values
    - Marriage and Family.
    are the usage of commas correct in the following sentences, and which one is less confusing?

    The electives are English, and Society, Technology and Values.
    The electives are Society, Technology and Values, and English.

    The electives are English, Marriage and Family.
    The electives are Marriage and Family, and English.

    The electives are Society, Technology and Values, and Marriage and Family.

    If Marriage and Family are different courses, should the sentence be:
    The electives are English, Marriage, and Family.

    Thank you very much for your help. I really appreciate it.

  2. #2
    Soup's Avatar
    Soup is offline VIP Member
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    Re: Use of "by", "however", and commas

    1. The meaning doesn't change.
    Ex: We derive the model (by) using the Slavnov transformations, without using the Higgs mechanism. SpringerLink - Journal Article
    Sentence error
    We derived the model (by) using the factors.


    2. Learn about however-placement here, page 28.


    3. Commas matter, not phrase order; unless, that is, you're listing the electives according to preference.
    The electives are English, Society, Technology and Values, and Marriage and Family.
    4a. The 3 electives are English, Marriage(,) and Family. <the comma is optional>
    4b. The electives are English, Marriage, and Family. <the comma is helpful>

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