There are many pair of words such as: like-alike, wake-awake, rise-arise, live-alive etc.

What's the different of these? Does everwhat general rule exist or maybe subrule ? These beginnings a- have a common etymology? I'm interested in a suitable link also but I cann't how I search for it.

remark: I know the Greek privative "a-" (such as symmetry -- asymmetry) from my native language (Hungarian) well. But above are others.