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  1. #1
    MARAMARA is offline Junior Member
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    Red face Copula verbs and adverbs

    Dear Abaka:
    I have read that Copula Verbs are those that link the subject with the complement. So, can you read these sentences to see if I´ve understood your explanation? Like you example says: THEY TRAVELLED FAR AND WIDE. Here, there is no copula and wide functions as an adverb, modifying the verb To travel. THE SEATS OF THE PLANE WHERE THEY TRAVELLED SEEMED NOT TO BE WIDE ENOUGH FOR SO FAT WOMEN. Here, there is copula, linking the seats.... with wide enough , and wide functioning as an adjective.
    Other pair of sentences: My factory has grown wide during the last three years. (no copula- adverb)
    My factory´s growing has been quite wide during the last three years (copula- adjective)

    Does it seem right to you? Please, correct me. Thanks.

  2. #2
    engee30's Avatar
    engee30 is offline Key Member
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    Smile Re: Copula verbs and adverbs

    Quote Originally Posted by MARAMARA View Post
    Other pair of sentences: My factory has grown wide during the last three years. (no copula- adverb)
    In fact, the verb grow is a copula there.

  3. #3
    abaka is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: Copula verbs and adverbs

    Quote Originally Posted by MARAMARA View Post
    Dear Abaka:
    I have read that Copula Verbs are those that link the subject with the complement. So, can you read these sentences to see if I´ve understood your explanation? Like you example says: THEY TRAVELLED FAR AND WIDE. Here, there is no copula and wide functions as an adverb, modifying the verb To travel. THE SEATS OF THE PLANE WHERE THEY TRAVELLED SEEMED NOT TO BE WIDE ENOUGH FOR SO FAT WOMEN. Here, there is copula, linking the seats.... with wide enough , and wide functioning as an adjective.
    Other pair of sentences: My factory has grown wide during the last three years. (no copula- adverb)
    My factory´s growing has been quite wide during the last three years (copula- adjective)

    Does it seem right to you? Please, correct me. Thanks.
    The first, second and last are right. In the third, like Engee30 I would say it IS a copula, and "wide" is an adjective. What is wide: the growth or the factory? or both? I'd say here it's just the factory.

    BUT...That was exactly my point. Sometimes it's hard to determine whether the verb is a copula verb or not. For example, "the shot went wide". This, or something practically equivalent, is quoted by the OED as an example of "wide" used as an adverb. Was the "shot" wide, or was the "going" wide? A bit of both, right? Here it is indeed hard.
    Last edited by abaka; 25-Jan-2009 at 11:22. Reason: typos. sigh.

  4. #4
    philo2009 is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: Copula verbs and adverbs

    I think the analysis has been sufficiently dealt with, but you should also be aware of a number of errors in your example sentences:

    1. THE SEATS OF THE PLANE WHERE THEY TRAVELLED SEEMED NOT TO BE WIDE ENOUGH FOR SO FAT WOMEN.

    --> for SUCH fat women.

    ('So' cannot modify an attributive adjective.)

    2. *My factory has grown wide during the last three years.

    Semantically unacceptable: a road or river might be described as 'wide', but not a factory!

    3. *My factory´s growing has been quite wide during the last three years.

    The previously noted semantic unacceptability is compounded by the inappropriate use of a gerund: even though we might, for instance, say

    He has grown bigger.

    we still cannot say

    *His growing has been bigger.

    The adjective refers to HIM, not to some abstract aspect of his existence!



  5. #5
    MARAMARA is offline Junior Member
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    Thumbs up Re: Copula verbs and adverbs

    I want to thank all of you for your completely useful answers, which I am going to read again and try to learn. I also have a great deal of weakness in my writing, and a low vocabulary level.
    But the matter of copula verbs and adverbs us becoming clearer (for, to?) me.
    Thanks!!! My best regards

  6. #6
    MARAMARA is offline Junior Member
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    Default Re: Copula verbs and adverbs

    Excuse me, but regarding your answer, where you speak about semantically unacceptable usages of certain words like wide for a factory and growing in gerund, I would like to ask you how do you consider is the best way to learn the right usage.
    I am learning English on my own, by myself, because I cannot pay for a course. I always look for grammar and vocabulary free pages on the Internet, but it is not enough. This is the reason to consult you about.
    Thanks in advance.

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