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  1. #11
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Hello teachers,

    Here are more sentence elements to analyse. Would you please help me out?

    Parts of speech:

    a) In "some Europeans" would you say that "some" is a determiner or a quantifier ?
    b) this war : "this" = demonstrative adjective ?
    c) look at this : "this" = demonstrative pronoun ?


    2) He showed his father his sincerity by cooperating with all his teachers at school.

    a) Parts of speech:

    He = nominative personal pronoun
    his = possessive adjective
    By = preposition
    Cooperating = non-finite verb OR gerund = noun (?)
    All = determiner / quantifier / pronoun ?

    b) sentence pattern:

    He = subject

    showed = verb [if I want to say that the verb is ditransitive, should I write it in the “parts of speech” analysis (nature of the word) or the “sentence pattern” (function of the word) ?]

    his father = indirect object
    his sincerity = direct object
    by cooperating with all his teachers at school = adverbial of manner (prepositional phrase modifying "show")

    Thank you very much for your help.
    Hela
    Last edited by hela; 03-Feb-2005 at 20:58.

  2. #12
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    Re: sentence analysis


    a) "some" quantifier and adjective (it does both)
    b) "this__" demonstrative adjective (modifies a noun)
    c) "__this" demonstrative pronoun (represents a noun)

    2) He showed his father his sincerity by cooperating with all his teachers at school.

    He = 3rd person subject pronoun
    his = 3rd preson possessive adjective
    by = preposition
    cooperating = gerund (TEST: by his cooperating; gerunds take possessive adjectives)
    all = adjective in form; substantive noun in function (TEST: all of his teachers)

    showed = ditransitive verb, 3rd person singular, past tense
    his father = indirect object
    his sincerity = direct object
    by cooperating with all his teachers at school = adverbial of manner

    You're most welcome, Hela.

  3. #13
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Dear teachers,

    There is something I really didn't understand.

    A/ How should I know if a determiner or a quantifier is a pronoun or an adjective ?

    1) numerals = pronouns / adjectives ?
    2) quantifiers (e.g. some) = pronouns / adjectives ?
    3) In the word class analysis how should I qualify "some, many, any, etc." as quantifiers ? / pronouns ? / adjectives ?

    B/ what's the difference between an adjective like "big / expensive / shameful" and an adjective like "five, some, this , his" ?

    C/ "cooperating" What's the difference between "a non-finite verb" and "a gerund (noun)" ?

    Thank you for your help.
    Hela
    Last edited by hela; 06-Feb-2005 at 17:11.

  4. #14
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Quote Originally Posted by hela
    A/ How should I know if a determiner or a quantifier is a pronoun or an adjective ?

    1) numerals = pronouns / adjectives ?
    2) quantifiers (e.g. some) = pronouns / adjectives ?
    3) In the word class analysis how should I qualify "some, many, any, etc." as quantifiers ? / pronouns ? / adjectives ?
    A determiner (e.g., the, a, an) tells us whether the noun it modifies is specific or non-specific, whereas a quantifier, notice the root "quant-", refers to quantity. Quantifiers tell us how much, and how many.

    B/ what's the difference between an adjective like "big / expensive / shameful" and an adjective like "five, some, this , his" ?
    If the adjective tells is how much, how many, then it functions as a quantifier, and if the adjective tells us who the object (that the noun refers to) belongs to, then it's a possessive adjective, like "his". If the adjective demonstrates a location, like "this" and "these", then it's called a demonstrative. When "this" stands as a noun, it's a demonstrative pronoun, and when it modifies a noun, it's a demonstrative adjective.

    C/ "cooperating" What's the difference between "a non-finite verb" and "a gerund (noun)" ?
    Non-finite verbs, like infinitive (to) cooperate, and participle cooperating, ahve subjects, whereas a gerund never has a subject. In fact, only with gerunds is it possible to add in a possessive pronoun, like this,

    Walking up the hill is fun. (gerund)
    => Our walking up the hill is fun. (possessive pronoun/adjective)

    She is the girl sitting by the door. (participle)
    => She is the girl *her sitting by the door. (ungrammatical; poss. pronoun)
    => She is the girl. She is sitting by the door. (grammatical; subject)

    Note, in the first example, "Our" is a possessive pronoun in form, and a possessive adjective in function. Every word in a sentence has a form, what it looks like, and a function, what it does.

  5. #15
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Re: sentence analysis

    So if a teacher asks me to analyze the parts of speech of a sentence what should I say for "some, his, this, five..." that they are a) "determiners", b) "adjectives", c) "quantifier / possessive adjective / demonstrative pronoun or adjective, numeral...", d) something else ?

    Many thanks,
    Hela

  6. #16
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Dear teachers,

    Could someone help me with this explanation? I didn't understand it.

    THE POLICEMAN: subject
    WAS NOT IMPRESSED: passive verb phrase
    BY YOUR ALIBI: agentive adverbial

    "an agentive adverbial" is a by-phrase denoting the agent of a passive verb - another 'minor' subclass of adverbial.
    Thank you in advance.
    Hela

  7. #17
    Tdol is offline Editor, UsingEnglish.com
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    Re: sentence analysis

    It modifes the verb and gives the agent, which is a term for the performer of the action in the active:
    My alibi didn't impress the policeman.


  8. #18
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Thanks tdol!

  9. #19
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Dear teachers,

    Would you please correct my analysis ?

    1) The controversy over Mary Carleton's identity raged on for many years in popular forums

    Sentence elements:

    The controversy over Mary Carleton’s identity = subject

    raged on = intransitive verb

    for many years = adverbial of time

    in popular forums = adverbial of place



    2) After her acquittal Mary Carleton left for us an account of the trial.

    Parts of speech:

    after = adverb

    her = possessive adjective

    acquittal = noun

    left = ditransitive verb

    for = preposition

    us = accusative personal pronoun



    Sentence elements :

    After her acquittal = adverbial of time

    Mary Carlton = subject

    left = ditransitive verb

    for us = indirect object (?)

    an account of the trial = direct object


    Many thanks,
    Hela

  10. #20
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    Re: sentence analysis

    Both are correct.

    Note, there are three ways to express 2).

    [a] left us an account
    [b] left an account for us
    [c] left for us an account

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