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  • Dear Ayuda,

    I asked you some questions a few months ago and was impressed by your answer. So I have another question for you, hoping you can help again. Thanks in advance.


    In the following paragraph, what does the word "tribalism" refer to? It is apparently about Vietnam War? But "tribalism" can't be the country. Your take please? Thanks.

    " Sometimes, when I am particularly depressed, I ascribe our behavior to stupidity — the stupidity of our leadership, the stupidity of our culture. Three decades ago, we suffered defeat in an unwinnable war against tribalism, the most fanatic of political emotions, fighting against a country about which we knew nothing and in which we had no vital interests. Vietnam was hopeless enough, but to repeat the same arrogant folly 30 years later in Iraq is unforgivable. The Swedish statesman Axel Oxenstierna famously said, “Behold, my son, with how little wisdom the world is governed.”
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