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    [Grammar] It would have indicated...

    I cannot find anywhere how to describe this use of "would + have + past participle." i don't want the grammatical name but how it is functioning. I think it is certainty in the past, but my grammar book leaves blank the use of will as 100% certainty in the column it has for "the past." Please...
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    [Grammar] If I were you, I would research animal agriculture before I eat/ate any more... made from animals. Which is it: EAT or ATE? And why? Thank you, Donna
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    Independent clause + comma + and + dependent clause + comma + independent clause

    Here is a sample sentence with the clause arrangment in question: She is certain about it, and if she has a backache, she will take medication. I believe this sentence to be punctuated correctly. I need the brilliant and helpful people here to tell me how to explain to someone why a "comma...
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    How is the infinitive functioning in this sentence?

    Insights into the brains of paralyzed patients are helping to drive the technology as well as leading to new discoveries. I think "to drive the technology" is an infinitive + object functioning as an adverb. I think this is so because the infinitive phrase answers the question, "In what way...
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    signposting in academic writing in U.S.: yay or nay?

    How do U.S. writing teachers feel about it? I don't think they like it. Meanwhile, there are handouts all over the Internet from U.K. universities exhorting writing students to signpost. Signposting example: Having examined the role of the liver in breaking down alcohol within the body it...
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    [Grammar] What part of speech is "as" in this sentence?

    MOBA games are viewed as distinct from and more legitimate than RPG games. Thank you!
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    [Grammar] Present perfect in both subordinate and main clauses

    Is it okay to use the present perfect in both the subordinate and main clauses? Example: As I have grown older, my focus has switched to marine biology. Thanks for the help! Happy New Year!
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    Aren't there certain situations when a comma can precede "even if"?

    This place is great. Have to say that right off the bat. Okay, here's the deal. Sometimes I feel like the "even if" subordinate clause fits less under the category of subordinate clause and more under the category of non-essential element, which we can put a comma in front of. What say the...
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    An American walks into a bar...but it's a Japanese man that walks into a bar

    I wouldn't say a Japanese walks into a bar. Why is an American walks into a bar okay? Thanks!
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    [Grammar] Certain continuous verbs (live, study) in the present perfect + a since phrase

    This is confusing: I have lived in NYC since 2001. This could mean that since 2001, I moved to NYC and then out of NYC. But it could also mean that I began living in NYC in 2001 and continue to live there. According to my grammar book, there are certain continuous verbs that can be used in...
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    [Grammar] Can a comma set off a list?

    Are these two sentences correct? We make three flavors of ice cream, chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry. Our ice cream comes in three flavors, chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry. Thanks, Donna
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    The Simple Aspect

    I don't understand if the Simple Aspect describes events which are seen to be completed or if it describes events that do not state whether the action is completed or on-going. I think these two websites are saying conflicting things? Are they? Website #1: The Simple Aspect is used to...
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    [Grammar] Are commas for single words inside or outside the quotation marks? (American English)

    Is this correct in American English? (It's an example I made-up in order to understand the rules of quotation marks and commas in this type of situation.) The "Apple" row intersects with the columns labeled "Orange", "Grape", and "Strawberry". Or should it be written this way: The "Apple" row...
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    [Grammar] water aerobics

    Is there a name for those words that end in 's' but take a singular noun? Are they considered count or noncount nouns? Thank you, Donna
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    [Grammar] Can 'what' refer to plural subjects?

    Once you have entered the library by walking through what look like metal detectors, follow the wall on your left. (There are two metal detectors; you can walk through either one.) This comes up for me a lot, but I've never asked about it. I always want to use a singular verb with what...
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    [Grammar] How can an adverb be the subject of a sentence?

    Outside lie big, pale granites discs, like millstones, for making wheel rims on. How can an adverb be the subject of a sentence? Thanks! Donna
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    [Grammar] comma + especially when or especially if

    I don't think the wording or comma in the example sentence below is acceptable in academic writing because when is a subordinating conjunction, and commas don't precede subordinating conjunctions. 1. Is this opinion true? 2. Does 'especially' modify the word 'when' in the sentence below...
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    [Grammar] is this a distributive plural question?

    Here is a list of people whose cats are spayed. Here is a list of people whose cat is spayed. If every person has one cat, which sentence is correct? Or are both correct? And does this sentence deal with distributive plurals? Thanks, Donna
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    Is 'find useful' elliptical?

    Manufacturers like to know what features consumers find useful. Useful is an adjective and shouldn't work for the transitive verb useful, but it does. Is this due to ellipsis? Ex: ...what features consumers find are useful. Thanks, Donna
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    [Grammar] the command had when it is followed by an infinitive

    1. I had him leave. 2. I asked him to leave. In sentence #1, is leave an infinitive without the particle to? What function does leave (in sentence #1) and to leave (in sentence #2) serve? Object complement? Thanks!