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  1. Offroad's Avatar
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      • Native Language:
      • Brazilian Portuguese
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      • Brazil
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      • Brazil

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    #1

    by which

    Dear friends...

    a process by which they will ...
    a process in which they will...


    I wonder if one could replace 'by' with 'in' with no exceptions. Are they fully interchangeable?

    Something tells me there's a difference between them. I just can't figure out what it is.

    Thanks

  2. konungursvia's Avatar
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      • Canada
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    • Join Date: Mar 2009
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    #2

    Re: by which

    By which indicates a process, a means, a mechanism, and in which simply means contained within, during.... so by which is more related to causality, in which to any result or side-effect.

    A process by which a drug is manufactured... (purpose)
    A process in which more energy is consumed than released. (incidental or not)

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