Interested in Language
a process by which they will ...
a process in which they will...
I wonder if one could replace 'by' with 'in' with no exceptions. Are they fully interchangeable?
Something tells me there's a difference between them. I just can't figure out what it is.
By which indicates a process, a means, a mechanism, and in which simply means contained within, during.... so by which is more related to causality, in which to any result or side-effect.
A process by which a drug is manufactured... (purpose)
A process in which more energy is consumed than released. (incidental or not)