In its 1999 study on sports legislation in Europe, the Council of Europe classified national sports legislation models as interventionist and non-interventionist. The former models feature “specific legislation on the structure and mandate of a significant part of the sports movement,” and are said to produce uniform regulation, better governance, more public accountability and less governing bodies. In contrast, under the latter, the general private law of associations governs sports federations, and for that reason enjoy more freedom from state interference as a result. As such, non-interventionist models are more adaptable to the particular needs of each sport, and maintain a stronger connection to the grassroots of the game.
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