Clause- must have subject and verb
A phrase is not a clause.
Independent Clause- same as a simple sentence
Dependent clause (subordinate clause)- is a clause(contains a subject and verb) but does not express a complete thought
Ex. Since you have arrived, I have been very happy.
Since you have arrived ( adverbial clause)
Ex. The girl who has black hair is very beautiful.
who has black hair (adjective clause)
Ex. I did not like him from the start.
from the start (prepositional phrase...not a clause)
1. After I got home, I was very tired.
2. When I finally went to bed, I slept ten hours.
3. The boy who lives next door is my best friend.
4. In the beginning, the world was without form.
Student or Learner