I think I understand what you mean, but I am not sure that it is the syntax of the sentence that gives it the meaning it normally has. I think this has to do with the meaning of the words used.
I think if this structure is used with other words, it could function in a different way:
Consider this sentence though:
Haven't I helped anyone?
Does this not mean:
Isn't there anyone at all that I have helped?
or (just to stick to the modal 'would'):
Wouldn't I achieve anything if I work hard?
Wouldn't I annoy anyone if I stay here? (Are you sure it is OK if I stay?)