Student or Learner
The 1980s ---- a surge of new interest ---- the definition of intelligence.
A) have brought / to be expanding
B) had brought / having expanded
C) were bringing / to have expanded
D) brought / in expanding
E) would have brought / to expand
Could you explain me why D?
The 1980s did something, what? It brought something; brought what? A new interest; a new interest in what? In expanding; in expanding what? The definition of intelligence.
Although figuring out the correct form of the verb in this case might seem troublesome, the second part, to me, clearly requires a preposition, which leaves options D and E as the possible answers. Moreover, using option E leaves the sentence sounding like an incomplete thought, leaving D as the better answer.
Also, option A is clearly wrong as the subject of the sentence, is in the 3rd person of the singular which would require the verb to be "has", rather than "have".
Finally, completing the sentences with B or C seems to me, to result in sentences that hardly make any sense...